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Advances in X-ray Analysis

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Proceedings of the Denver X-ray Conference

 

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ISSN 1097-0002 CODEN AXRAAA
Editors-in-Chief Thomas Blanton, International Centre for Diffraction Data, 12 Campus Boulevard, Newtown Square, PA 19073, U.S.A.
Lora Brehm, Dow, Retired, Midland, MI, U.S.A.
Martina Schmeling, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL 60660, U.S.A.

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Advances in X-ray Analysis archives Vol. 1-39 (1957 – 1995) are available from Cambridge Core.


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2019 – VOL63

A METHOD FOR MAPPING SUBMICRON-SCALE CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ORDER/DISORDER APPLIED TO HUMAN TOOTH ENAMELR. Free, K. DeRocher, R. Xu, D. Joester, S.R. Stock…The details of this structure are important in multiple human health contexts, from understanding the progression of dental caries (tooth decay) to understanding the process of amelogenesis and related developmental defects. Enamel is composed p…
BI-CROSS VALIDATION OF SPECTRAL CLUSTERING HYPERPARAMETERSSioan Zohar, Chun Hong Yoon…Here we demonstrate that previous work using bi-cross validation (BCV) to determine the number of singular vectors directly maps to the spectral clustering problem of estimating both the number of clusters and hyperparameter values. Applying thi…
C/H RATIO AND O CORRECTIONS FOR XRF ANALYSIS OF SULFUR IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTSK. Kawakyu, T. Moriyama, Y. Kataoka…A fundamental assumption of these test methods is that calibrations are set up with type standards, i.e. test and calibration samples must be matrix matched. Differences in carbon to hydrogen (C/H) ratio or presence of oxygenates affects the abs…
CAREFUL APPROACHES TO QUANTIFY LIGHT ELEMENTS IN COMPLEX MATRICES USING BENCH-TOP ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCEPoulami Dutta, Casey McAlpin…As such, most of the quality control analyses are conducted in-house. Many analyses include quantifying elemental concentrations in sample matrices ranging from raw materials to final products. Recent advances in bench-top energy dispersive X-ra…
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZATION OF URANIUM-SILICIDES ACCIDENT TOLERANT FUEL BY HIGH TEMPERATURE NEUTRON DIFFRACTIONTashiema L. Wilson, Sven C. Vogel, Joshua T. White, Elizabeth Sooby-Wood, Theodore M. Besmann…Despite the body of work characterizing both fresh and irradiated U3Si2 fuel, there are gaps in crystallographic knowledge. In this study the crystal structure of U3Si2 was investigated and the interstitial site for excess Si was accessed. The e…
DEVELOPMENT OF FLY-SCAN MODE CONFOCAL MICRO-X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSISTsugufumi Matsuyama, Shohei Mita, Momotaro Nakanishi, Kouichi Tsuji…In CM-XRF, a micro X-ray beam is generated through optical focusing of X-rays. Thus far, CM-XRF has only been performed in step-by-step mode, with the drawback of prolonged measurement times required for elemental mapping, depending on the area …
DIFFRACTED BEAM COLLIMATORS – EXTENDING THE RANGE OF APPLICATIONS FOR 2D DETECTORSDetlef Beckers, Milen Gateshki, Scott Speakman, Vladimir Kogan…D detectors on multi-purpose diffractometers. Traditionally 2D detectors are used in application areas that require small illuminated spots on the sample and do not utilize any diffracted beam collimation systems. In this work we are focusing on…
ELEMENTAL MAPPING OF PASTA SAMPLE USING CONFOCAL MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRYHitomi Nakano, Yumiko Nakanishi, Shohei Mita, Momotaro Nakanishi, Shintaro Komatani, Kouichi Tsuji …In this paper, we visualized chlorine (Cl) distribution in boiled pasta by using confocal micro X-ray fluorescence (C-M-XRF). C-M-XRF can obtain 3D mapping images. A problem is that XRF from the inner area of sample is suscetible to absorption. …
HOW TO USE AND HOW NOT TO USE CERTIFIED REFERENCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL METROLOGY LABORATORIESJohn R. Sieber…The demand is exacerbated by wide spread misuse of CRMs. When should one use CRMs? When should one not use CRMs? Must labs always use NIST SRMs? How can labs demonstrate analytical capabilities for their accreditation scopes? Why so many questio…
INVESTIGATION OF THE REAL STRUCTURE USING X-RAY DIFFRACTION AS A TOOL FOR LASER WELDING OPTIMIZATIONJiří Čapek, Nikolaj Ganev, Karel Trojan, Stanislav Němeček, Kamil Kolařík…Therefore, high demands are placed on mechanical properties and service life of welded functional components. Because of the heterogeneity of energy and localized fusion during the welding process, high residual stresses are generated in areas n…
MONOCHROMATIC CONFOCAL MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRYNaoki Kawahara, Shota Sonoda, Shohei Mita, Tsugufumi Matsuyama, Kouichi Tsuji…In laboratory CM-XRF instruments, polychromatic x-ray focusing sources formed by using an x-ray tube and a polycapillary full-lens optic have been utilized. In this case, high background is one of the problems for trace elemental analysis. In th…
RIETVELD PHASE ANALYSIS OF DEPOSITS FORMED AT DIFFERENT LOCATIONS WITHIN ELECTRIC SUBMERSIBLE PUMPSHusin Sitepu…The electrical submersible pumps are frequently used in oil production to provide a relatively efficient form of artificial lift, to enhance oil production. The main objective of this study is to extend the new sample preparation method [Sitepu …
SPHERICAL OPTICS BY DISLOCATION OF CRYSTAL STRUCTURE Joanna M. Maj, Felix Krasnicki, Boguslaw Slusarczyk…This invention comprises a method of fabricating spherical optics by dislocation. This method eliminates residual stress and aberration caused by the remaining stressful forces. The fabrication by dislocation of the crystal structure is a new me…
SYNTHETIC CALIBRATION REFERENCE MATERIALS FOR X-RAY FLUORESCENCE QUANTITATION OF 22 COMPONENTS IN ANCIENT JAPANESE POTTERYShintaro Ichikawa, Tsutomu Kurisaki…The reference materials were glass beads prepared by mixing chemical reagents (oxides, carbonates, and diphosphate) and fusing with alkali-flux. The calibration curves showed good linearity with correlation coefficients greater than 0.996. Relia…
TOTAL PATTERN ANALYSES FOR NON-CRYSTALLINE MATERIALST.G. Fawcett, S. Gates-Rector, A.M. Gindhart, M. Rost, S.N. Kabekkodu, J.R. Blanton, T.N. Blanton…While the suite of programs is intended for the analysis of any diffraction pattern, particular attention was focused on the analysis of common amorphous, non-crystalline or partially crystalline materials found in minerals, polymers and pharmac…
USE OF A BE-DOME HOLDER FOR TEXTURE AND STRAIN CHARACTERIZATION OF LI METAL THIN FILMS VIA SIN2 METHODOLOGYMark A. Rodriguez, Katharine L. Harrison, Subrahmanyam Goriparti, James J. M. Griego, Brad Boyce, Brian Perdue…X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of Li films required preparation and examination within an inert environment, hence a Be-dome sample holder was employed during XRD characterization. Results show that the Li film grown under 1000 kPa displayed a…
VARIOUS APPROACHES TO SURFACE RESIDUAL STRESS AND GRINDING EFFECT OF CERAMIC SURFACESTomohiro Shibata…For commercially available β-Si3N4 insert, using χ tilting (both Cu and Cr Kα radiation), grazing incidence with whole pattern analysis, and Ω tilting techniques were used for residual stress determination with information depth profiles for com…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDY OF MECHANICALLY ALLOYED LI-SN-ZNCheng K. Saw, B. William Choi…Hence, Lithium has to be incorporated into the breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Because of the chemical reactivity of Li with water and air, alternative alloys based on Li were proposed for this replacement. Recent work by LLNL…
X-RAY DIFFRACTON AS A MAJOR TOOL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PM2.5 AND PM10 AEROSOLSNasser Hamdan, Hussain Alawadhi…The sampling campaign ran over a one-year period with sampling frequency of twice a week for both PM2.5 and PM10. X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods, which are not commonly used in PM analysis, have been utilized successfully to identify crystallin…
X-RAY FLUORESCENCE DATA ANALYSIS USING A BLANK CORRECTION APPROACHAndrew M. Crawford…To do this, many programs initially remove a per-pixel baseline prior to fitting to account for a background XRF continuum. Previously, we demonstrated an alternative background correction where in the average blank spectrum is calculated from n…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2018 – VOL62

3D IMMERSIVE VISUALIZATION OF MICRO-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND XRD TEXTURE DATASETSMark A. Rodriguez, Tod T. Amon, James J. M. Griego, Harlan Brown-Shaklee, Nicolas Green…Likewise, intuitive evaluation of these 3D datasets can be enhanced by recent advances in Virtual Reality (VR) hardware and software. Additionally, the generation, viewing, and manipulation of 3D X-ray diffraction datasets, such as pole figures …
BEAM MONOCHROMATIZATION CONCEPTS FOR POWDER DIFFRACTIONDetlef Beckers, Milen Gateshki, Detlev J. Götz…Traditional incident monochromators include, for example, Johansson monochromators, 4-crystal-monochromators or the so-called hybrid monochromators – i.e. combinations of a parabolic graded multilayer with a channel cut crystal. Their advantages…
DOES SIZE MATTER? CAN PORTABLE XRF BE USED FOR PROCESS CONTROL?Maggi Loubser…The data will show that the capabilities between the three variations of the technique are comparable, the key factor to this being possible is the introduction of the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) for handheld XRF. The biggest restrictive factor…
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SELF-CONSISTENT KRÖNER-ESHELBY MODEL FOR THE CALCULATION OF X-RAY ELASTIC CONSTANTS FOR ANY CRYSTAL SYMMETRYArnold C. Vermeulen, Christopher M. Kube, Nicholas Norberg…With applying appropriate symmetry relations, the point groups of higher crystal symmetries are covered as well. This simplifies the implementation effort to cover the calculations for any crystal symmetry. In the literature several models can b…
INDEXCUB: A READY-TO-USE SET OF ROUTINES FOR X-RAY DIFFRACTION LINE PROFILE ANALYSISAdriana Pérez-Casanova, Héctor Medel-Cobaxin, Flavio F. Contreras-Torres…In this concern, the study of polycrystalline materials underlays the use of appropriate software: free, licensed, proprietary or commercial to assist research on structure determination, structure refinement, and microstructure characterization…
MINERAL ANALYSIS OF RIVER SAND AROUND MT. TSUKUBA FOR PROVENANCE ESTIMATION OF ATAMADAI TYPE POTTERY (2500–1500 BC) FROM HINOKI SITE (TOCHIGI, JAPAN)S. Ichikawa, Y. Sakito, T. Kurisaki…Fifty-five of those were Atamadai type pottery, which might contain some temper fragments from the manufacturing process. The pottery shards were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The mineral analyses were compared with the river sands aro…
MONITORING OF FES2 REACTIONS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE XRD COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHYKerry-Ann M. Stirrup, Mark A. Rodriguez, Eric N. Coker, James J. M. Griego, Travis M. Anderson…When FeS2 cathode materials were analyzed in an air environment, reaction of the KCl and LiCl salt phases led to the formation of Li2(SO4) and KFe2S3 phases beginning at ~230 oC. These phases subsequently reacted to generate various forms of pot…
POLYCHROMATIC SIMULTANEOUS WDXRF FOR VALENCE EVALUATION OF CATHODE ACTIVE MATERIALS IN LITHIUM-ION BATTERIESTetsuya Yoneda, Takuro Izumi, Satoshi Tokuda, Susumu Adachi, Kenji Sato, Misako Kobayashi, Takashi Mukai, Hideaki Tanaka, Masahiro Yanagida…The measured energy-identification precision is approximately 20 meV. The precision is sufficient for the valence state evaluation of lithium ion battery (LIB) cathodes through the peak shifts of X-ray fluorescence lines. Ex-situ cathode materia…
QUANTITATIVE PHASE ANALYSIS OF XRD DATA OF SLUDGE DEPOSITS FROM REFINERIES AND GAS PLANTS BY USE OF THE RIETVELD METHODHusin Sitepu, Rasha A. Al-Ghamdi…Powder Diff., 24, 315-326]. Subsequently, the sample preparation methods— developed by the authors — to separate the inorganic materials from the hydrocarbon of the sludge deposits and the other materials, were extended to perform quantitative p…
QUANTITATIVE XRD & XRF ANALYSES — UNIFIED & SIMPLIFIEDFrank H. Chung…New insights led to the three laws of quantitative XRD & XRF analyses: 1. the law of zero matrix effects, 2. the law of constant slope of calibration lines, and 3. the law of binary mixtures. The first two laws change the current concept of quan…
RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF CERAMIC CUTTING TOOLS INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONTomohiro Shibata…From the standard side inclination stress measurement, a large deviation from a linear sin2 ?? dependence of lattice strain was observed near χ ~ 90° indicating a stress gradient along the depth direction near the surface. The information dept…
TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF WASTE WATER REFERENCE MATERIAL AND ELUATES FROM FLY ASH BY BENCHTOP TOTAL REFLECTION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRYAtsushi Ohbuchi, Wataru Matsuda, Hikari Takahara, Satoshi Ikeda, Yoshiyuki Kataoka, Kengo Fujii, Yuya Koike…Quantitative results were obtained using the internal standard method. The results obtained for a number of harmful elements present in a wide range of concentrations were in good agreement with standard values in waste water reference samples. …
X-RAY FLUORESCENCE AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY DATA FUSION FOR ANALYSIS OF DUCT TAPES: INTRA ROLL AND INTER PRODUCT CORRELATIONSS. Mamedov…XRF provides information about elemental composition of the material, whereas Raman spectroscopy offers molecular information. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to classification of…
XRD ANALYSIS OF ILLITE-SMECTITE INTERSTRATIFICATION IN CLAYS FROM OIL SANDS ORESB. Patarachao, D.D. Tyo, A. Zborowski, K. Davis, J. Kung, S. Ng, P.H.J. Mercier…Identification and quantification of clay minerals are therefore important to the oil sands industry. Two estuarine (E3 and E7) and two marine (M13 and M18) oil sands were used in this study. Separation of <2 µm clay solids was accomplished usin…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2017 – VOL61

A POLYCAPILLARY BASED METHOD OF MONOCHROMATIC TIME-RESOLVED X-RAY REFLECTIVITYH. Joress, A.R. Woll, J.D. Brock…Our method, implemented at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), utilizes a polycapillary X-ray optic to create a nominally-planar converging fan of radiation incident on a sample surface, providing a range of incident angles. An a…
AN EMPIRICAL DERIVATION OF THE X-RAY OPTIC TRANSMISSION PROFILE USED IN CALIBRATING THE PLANETARY INSTRUMENT FOR X-RAY LITHOCHEMISTRY (PIXL) FOR MARS 2020C.M. Heirwegh, W.T. Elam, D.T. Flannery, A.C. Allwood…Through a straightforward method of dividing a measured ‘blank’ spectrum over one calculated assuming no optic influence, a rudimentary profile was formed. A simple boxcar-smoothing algorithm was implemented to approximate the complete profile w…
BRAGG DIFFRACTION TRANSMISSION MICROSCOPY USING HIGHLY MONOCHROMATIC X-RAYSS. Stoupin, T. Kolodziej, A. Said, A. Campello, Y. Shvyd’ko…Quantitative information on the strain distribution was extracted from transmission images generated by scanning the energy of the incident X-rays through the reflectivity curve of a high-indexed diamond Bragg reflection. The use of transmission…
CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED USING MXRF TO COLLECT ELEMENTAL INFORMATION FROM SMALL ISOLATED SAMPLE FEATURESC.G. Worley, N. Xu…In the first example, MXRF elemental mapping was used to examine a uranium (U) pellet, and tiny sporadic spots were located containing relatively high concentrations of tungsten (W) or lead (Pb). Because these spots were so small and isolated, t…
DEVELOPMENT OF THE MICROGAP SEALED PROPORTIONAL COUNTER FOR SOFT X-RAYA. Stratilatov, R. Creighton, J. Barron, M. Zappe, K. Kozaczek…The MicroGap detector is simple in design, has significantly higher counting rate than a conventional single wire proportional counter, very good energy resolution, and works at lower bias voltage. This detector is designed as a substitute for s…
ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY DIFFRACTION TO ANSWER THE QUESTION: “WHAT’S IN THE BOX?”S. Dorkings, K. Moss, J. Kirk, M. Lebessis, H. Keith, K. Brown, J. Khong, R. Speller, R. Moss…ABSTRACT A novel design has been produced for a portable X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument for enabling bomb disposal experts to identify materials within suspicious items they are called to make safe. This design includes an innovative collima…
EVALUATION OF PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETERS FOR IN VIVO QUANTIFICATION OF BONE STRONTIUM AND LEAD ON THE BASIS OF THE MINIMUM DETECTABLE LIMIT: A PHANTOM STUDYE. Da Silva, G. Mankovskii, B. Kirkham, J. Groves, M. Gherase, D.E.B. Fleming, A. Pejović-Milić…XRF systems offer flexible, portable and relatively low cost solutions for the potential monitoring of humans for such elements. To date, there has been some application of both tungsten-target and silver-target pXRF systems for bone lead determ…
FINGER PRINT MINERALS FOR PROVENANCE ESTIMATION OF ATAMADAI-TYPE POTTERY (2500–1500 BC) FROM HINOKI SITE (TOCHIGI, JAPAN) USING POWDER XRDS. Ichikawa, M. Morikawa, T. Kurisaki, T. Yamaguchi…Fifty-nine of these were Atamadai-type pottery. The pottery shards were assayed by X-ray diffractometry to estimate finger print minerals for provenance study of the Atamadai-type pottery. The Atamadai-type pottery contained plagioclase, hornble…
GEOMETRY AND ALGORITHMS TO EXPAND 2ϴ COVERAGE OF 2D DETECTORB.B. He…For many applications, especially phase analysis and structure refinement, it is crucial for the 2D pattern to have a large 2θ range sufficient to cover as many diffraction rings as necessary. The 2θ range covered by a 2D detector is determined …
IN SITU XRD STUDIES OF MICROSTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN STEELM. Witte, I. Janssen…In order to carry out such measurements a XRD with area detector was equipped with a commercial heating stage. The aim is to determine the range of possible in situ XRD applications and to optimize the measurement and evaluation procedures for s…
INDUSTRIAL AND FORENSIC APPLICATION OF MICRO-XRF: GLASS ANALYSISS. Mamedov…XRF analysis has the potential to solve a wide variety of problems, associated with forensic science. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to classification of window glasses from diff…
INVESTIGATING PHOTOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF MICRO-XRF ANALYISIS ON COMMON GEOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDSS. Menachekanian, D.T. Flannery, C.M. Heirwegh, M.L. Tuite, C.S. Jamieson, R. Hodyss, K. Williford…We performed a preliminary study of the effects of intense and prolonged exposure to X-ray radiation from a micro- focus XRF instrument on the chemical composition of two organic compounds representative of molecules commonly reported from the t…
MINERAL IDENTIFICATION BY ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION: A NEW TOOL WITH PDF-4 DATABASEST.G. Fawcett, J.R. Blanton, S.N. Kabekkodu, T.N. Blanton…Many minerals have characteristic elemental profiles that can often distinguish the mineral from others by their composition differences. In Release 2016 ICDD® PDF-4 databases 20,670 unique compositions have been identified out of 45,497 mineral…
PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF PORTABLE XRF IN MINERAL EXPLORATIOND. Arne…The use of pXRF to generate data for public reporting purposes requires careful sampling methodologies to obtain representative analyses, estimation of realistic lower limits of detection for key elements, and calibration of the instrument. Repr…
RELATION BETWEEN INTENSITY OF XANES PRE-EDGE AND XES KΒ5 OF VANADIUM AND MANGANESE COMPOUNDST. Yamamoto…X-ray emission spectra were reproduced from references previously reported, and X-ray absorption spectra were recorded with a laboratory-type spectrometer. Samples with four-fold tetrahedral coordination gave more intense pre-edge peaks and Kβ5 …
RESIDUAL STRESS CHARACTERIZATION OF PVD COATED CARBIDE – INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONT. Shibata, B. Sargent…Ti1-xAlxN alloys have better oxidation resistance and superior mechanical properties at elevated temperature than TiN. With more Al atoms in the TiN lattice to form solid solutions, the bonding nature changes from metallic Ti-N to covalent Al-N,…
RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT OF HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PIPE WITH TWO-DIMENSIONAL X-RAY DIFFRACTIONM. Ren, C. Zheng, Y. Shi, Y. Tang, B. He…This method utilizes a two-dimensional detector to collect data of a selected diffraction ring and rotates the sample with only one ψ-tilt angle 22.5° and φ scan that covers 0° ~ 360° with 45° intervals. The diffraction ring of ca. 36° 2θ angle (C…
SPATIALLY RESOLVED TEXTURE AND MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED AND GAS GUN DEFORMED 304L STAINLESS STEEL INVESTIGATED BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTION AND ELECTRON BACKSCATTER DIFFRACTIONS. Takajo, D.W. Brown, B. Clausen, G.T. Gray III, C.M. Knapp, D.T. Martinez, C.P. Trujillo, S.C. Vogel…Vogel1 1Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. 2JFE Steel Corporation, Kurashiki 712, Japan. ABSTRACT In this study, we report the characterization of a 304L stainless steel cylindrical projectile produced by additive manufac…
SURFACE FINISH THICKNESS DETERMINATION ON PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS SUB-STRUCTURES USING XRF AND SEMF. Bogani…For example, gold plated surfaces are widely used in finishing of electronic components because they offer low contact resistance and great protection against corrosion. Thickness measurement of surface finish is critical to validate that the pr…
USE OF MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS FOR DETECTING ORIENTATION CHANGES IN STEEL VIA LAUE DIFFRACTION ARTIFACTS WITHIN XRF SPECTRAM.A. Rodriguez, M.H. Van Benthem, J.J.M. Griego, S. DeJong, D.F. Susan, P. Yang, C.D. Mowry, D. Enos, K.A. Stirrup…We report on measurements of several Stainless Steel witness samples originating from the same alloy lot. One set was collected as-received and the second set was measured after mechanical rolling. Texture changes resulting from the rolling proc…
WAVELENGTH-DISPERSIVE XRF IMAGING USING SOLLER SLITS AND 2D DETECTORS Aida, M. Yamanashi, T. Sakumura, K. Matsushita, T. Shoji, N. Kawahara, K. Tsuji…X-ray Instrument Division, Rigaku Corporation, 3-9-12, Matsubara-cho, Akishima-shi, Tokyo, 196-8666, Japan 3X-ray Research Laboratory, Rigaku Corporation, 14-8 Akaoji-cho, Takatsuki-shi, Osaka 569-1146, Japan ABSTRACT A new wavelength-dispersive…
WORKSHOP ON CHALLENGES IN XRF ANALYSIS FOR RELIABLE X-RAY SPECTRAJ. Kawai, K. Yoshida, R. Tanaka…Kawai, Kyoto University, for spectral interpretation, S. Ichikawa, Fukuoka University, for sample preparation, and Y. Uehara, Mitsubishi Electric Co., for soft X-ray detection. The present part is limited to the spectral interpretation, with emp…
X-RAY POLE FIGURE ANALYSIS ON BIAXIALLY ORIENTED POLYETHYLENE FILMS WITH SEQUENTIAL BIAXIAL DRAWINGY. Tang, M. Ren, H. Shi, D. Gao, B. He…The results track the evolution of pole figures of the (110), (200) and (020) lattice planes of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) film during the first deformation step, machine direction orientation (MDO), and the second deformation proce…
XRF ANALYSIS BY FP CALIBRATION USING STANDARDS WITH UNKNOWN COMPONENTSK. Kawakyu, T. Moriyama, Y. Kataoka…The quantification procedure of unknown samples with FP method was proposed by Criss and Birks (1968). The theoretical intensity equations in these approaches are dependent not on absolute mass fractions but mass fraction ratios of elements, imp…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2016 – VOL60

A 2D PIXEL DETECTOR FOR VERY HIGH-RATE X- AND GAMMA-RAY SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGINGE. Nygård , N. Malakhov, P. Weilhammer, O. Dorholt , O. M. Røhne, T. Nagano , K. Yamamoto…The underlying reasoning behind it, as well as early results from the evaluation of the first prototype, is presented. INTRODUCTION A 2D pixel detector concept with full spectroscopy feature in each pixel has been developed. The concept is versa…
A NEW IN SITU REACTION CHAMBER IN DEBYE-SCHERRER GEOMETRYT. Hartmann, S. Correll, S. Welzmiller…INTRODUCTION Up to the recent past, commercially available reaction chambers have strictly been built in reflection geometry to be mounted on Bragg/Brentano or Theta/Theta goniometers. In spite of all their construction-related disadvantages, su…
APPLICATION OF METAL IMPURITY TRACE ANALYSIS IN PHARMACEUTICAL MATERIALS USING UNIQUE FP METHOD FOR ASSESSMENT ELEMENTS BASED ON ICH Q3DH. Furukawa, N. Ichimaru, S. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, E. Terashita, M. Nishino, H. Ochi, D. Davis, C. Yomota…Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe, Japan ABSTRACT The International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) Q3D guideline presenting a policy for limiting metals for 24 elements such as cadm…
ARCHAEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ANCIENT POTTERY FROM OSHIMA AND HACHIJOJIMA ISLANDS (TOKYO, JAPAN) ACCORDING TO CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OBTAINED BY XRF ANALYSISS. Ichikawa, T. Matsumoto, T. Nakamura…For provenance estimation, the pottery shards were assayed by X-ray fluorescence using a glass bead sample preparation method. The calibration curves for this method were obtained using 10 synthetic standards containing the following analytes: N…
CALCULATION AND MEASUREMENTS OF XRD SPECTRA OF N-H EXTENDED SOLIDS UNDER HIGH PRESSUREI.G. Batyrev, S.P. Coleman, J.A. Ciezak-Jenkins, J.P. Larentzos…The structure of N-H at high pressure was determined from computational modelling using the evolutionary program USPEX, which was based on VASP plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A set of LAMMPS tools and shell scripts took…
COMBINING SAMPLE PRECONCENTRATION AND ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY TO QUANTIFY GALLIUM AND TRACE URANIUM IN PLUTONIUM USING POLARIZED-BEAM EDXRFAdministrator…The sample is dissolved, and the plutonium matrix is removed with ion exchange (IE) chromatography. Gallium and uranium are eluted from the IE column, and gallium is analyzed in solution. To concentrate the uranium, the specimens analyzed for ga…
DISCRIMINATING WINDOW AND BOTTLE GLASS FRAGMENTS BASED ON TRACE ELEMENTSAdministrator…In previous work, glass fragments of soda bottles were analyzed by micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry per the ASTM method with the modification of collecting two spectra from the same measurement position, one without filtering and one with f…
FIRST INDIRECT X-RAY IMAGING TESTS WITH AN 88-MM DIAMETER SINGLE CRYSTALA.H. Lumpkin, A.T. Macrander…The crystal was bonded to a fiber optic plate (FOP) for mechanical support and to allow the option for FO coupling to a large format camera. This configuration resolution was compared to that of self-supported 25-mm diameter crystals, with and w…
HIGH TEMPERATURE PHASE TRANSFORMATION OF IRON SULFIDES. Mlowe, N. Revaprasadu, S.S. Garje…ABSTRACT Studies on the phase transformation of iron sulfide nanoparticles synthesized employing a high temperature route by pyrolysis of heterocyclic iron(III) dithiocarbamate complexes revealed that the properties solely dependent on the tempe…
INVESTIGATION OF HEAVY METALS IN ZEBRAFISH TISSUE BY TOTAL REFLECTION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRYM. Schmeling, E. Jamka, J. Arroyo, K. Niaz, T. Trinh…Some heavy metals like zinc and copper are essential for enzymatic and metabolic function while others like lead and mercury are toxic and interfere with biological pathways. Zebrafish are a very popular model organism for monitoring toxicity of…
LABORATORY-TYPE POLYCHROMATIC SIMULTANEOUS WDXRF USING A SILICON STRIP DETECTOR FOR CHEMICAL STATE ANALYSISK. Sato, A. Nishimura, M. Kaino, S. Adachi…The X-rays dispersed by a flat analyzing crystal are detected simultaneously by different SSD channels, and a high energy resolution is achieved by limiting the measurement range. For Cr, we used a spectrometer with a range from 5.3 to 6.3 keV, …
MATERIALS ASSURANCE THROUGH ORTHOGONALMATERIALS MEASUREMENTS: X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ASPECTSM.A. Rodriguez, M.H. Van Benthem, D.F. Susan, J.J. M. Griego, P. Yang, C.D. Mowry, D.G. Enos…We document the use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of XRF data on compositionally similar and dissimilar stainless steels for the purpose of testing the feasibility of employing XRF spectra to parse and bin these alloys as the same or sig…
MONITORING PERFORMANCE OF DIFFRACTING CRYSTALS WITHOUT DETECTION OF THE REFLECTED X-RAYSAdministrator…Outside of the Bragg reflection region a 5-fold enhancement in the electric current was observed while the X-ray beam was incident on the working inclined surface of the crystal. Within the Bragg reflection region the electric current as a funct…
NEW NEUTRON TIME-OF-FLIGHT (TOF) CAPABILITY IN PDF-4+ RELATIONAL DATABASES: DIGITIZED DIFFRACTION PATTERNS AND I/IC FOR QUANTITATIVE PHASES ANALYSISJ. Faber, S. Kabekkodu, J. Blanton, T. Blanton, T. Fawcett…These diffraction patterns can all be calculated on-the-fly. Three TOF results can be realized: the live calculation of on-the fly diffraction patterns, the population of static PDF® cards, and data for search/match tables for phase identificati…
PORE NETWORK ANALYSIS OF CARBONATE ROCKS BY TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGES TAKEN AT MULTIPLE SPATIAL RESOLUTIONSR. Nagata, C.R. Appoloni, P. José dos Reis…Since carbonate rocks have a large range of pores sizes, their pore network is highly complex and have been the main object of many studies. X-ray computed tomography is a powerful technique that have been used to study petrophysical properties …
POWDER XRD AND TEM STUDY ON CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND INTERSTRATIFICATION OF ZN-CHLORITE (BAILEYCHLORE)Administrator…Rule and Frank Radke in 1988 for the honor of Professor Sturges W. Bailey of the University of Wisconsin – Madison, USA. Baileychlore occurs as dark green chlorite on calcite veins from garnet-vesuvianite skarn clasts at Red Dome ore deposit, Ch…
SIDE-COATED TAGWOODS AND THE FORMATION OF DENSE AGGREGATES OF INTERTWINED TAGWOOD STRINGSF. Peyronel, D. Pink, B. Quinn, A. Marangoni…We employed a Bonse-Hart instrument at the Advanced Photon Source, ANL. Unified fit and Guinier-Porod models were used to fit the data to obtain three parameters: scatterer shape, average scatterer linear dimensions, and fractal dimensions of ag…
SINGLE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF DESIGNER DRUGS CIRCULATING IN THE JAPANESE DRUG MARKET BY THE SYNCHROTRON RADIATION X-RAY DIFFRACTIONT. Hashimoto, R. Hanajiri, N. Yasuda, Y. Nakamura, N. Mizuno, S. Honda, S. Hayakawa, Y. Nishiwaki, S. Kimura…In order to determine the absolute structures of four new designer drugs derived from medicines (methylphenidate and phenmetrazine) x-ray single crystal structure analyses were performed using the BL26B1 beamline of synchrotron radiation facilit…
STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VANADIUM-BASED PHOSPHATES AS CATHODE MATERIALS FOR LI-ION BATTERIESQ. Kuang, X. Liu, Y. Zhao…State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China * Corresponding author. Tel.: +86-20-87111963, E-mail address: sckq@scut.edu.cn ABSTRACT The present Li-ion batteries (LIBs)…
TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCY OF MORPHOLOGY OF CONVENTIONAL THERMOPLASTIC AND LIGNIN-BASED POLYURETHANES USING WAXS AND SAXSK. Walbrueck, S. Klein, J. Rumpf, M. Schulze, S. Witzleben…Polyether and polyether/ester based TPU (thermoplastic polyurethanes) were investigated with wide-angle XRD (X-ray diffraction) and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering). Furthermore, SAXS measurements were performed in the temperature range of 30…
THROUGH THICKNESS TEXTURE GRADIENT PREDICTION OF 5XXX SERIES ALUMINUM AFTER SHEET ROLLING OPERATIONSJ. Ho, S. Dennis, A. Tabei , H. Garmestani…Theoretical models tend to account only for the idealized plane-strain compression resultant at the center of the material, thereby allowing for the assumption of a homogeneous texture with orthorhombic stress. This potentially leaves a largely …
X-RAY ANALYSIS OF FE3O4 MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLESAdministrator…The effect of the crystallite size on the lattice strain and the magnetic property of the MNPs are discussed. INTRODUCTION Iron oxide exhibit a number of potential applications aiming for improved quality of life. For example, because of its bi…
X-RAY FLUORESCENCE, RAMAN AND MULTIVARIATE STATISTICS ANALYSIS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTTERY FROM SÃO LUIZ, MA, BRAZILR.A. Ikeoka, C.R. Appoloni, O.H. Marcori, A.M. Bandeira…Prof. Almeida Prado, 1466 CEP 05508-900, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP – Brasil ABSTRACT This work concerns the archaeometric analysis of ceramic fragments from archaeological excavations carried out in “Sambaqui do Bacanga”, ‘Sambaqui do …


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2015 – VOL59

A NEW BENCHTOP TXRF SPECTROMETERFlannery, David T (3225-Caltech)…The optical alignment of the multilayer was made and confirmed by two strategies: a) following the X-ray beam with a CCD camera; b) collecting the spectra of the X-ray beam before and after the multilayer, using a second detector in front of the…
C/H AND O CORRECTION BY A SCATTERED X-RAY INTERNAL STANDARD FOR XRF ANALYSIS OF OILSK. Kawakyu, A. Morikawa, K. Watanabe, Y. Yamada, Y. Kataoka…Absorption and enhancement by coexisting inorganic elements such as additives in lubricating oils affect intensities as well. Analysis errors caused by these effects can be avoided using standards matrix matched to test samples. However, such st…
CHALLENGE OF TRACE ANALYSIS FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS AND FOOD USING THEORETICAL SCATTERED X-RAYSH. Furukawa*, N. Ichimaru, S. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, M. Nishino, H. Ochi, D. Davis…ABSTRACT The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has recently established guidelines for general analysis using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) methodology. XRF is an attractive methodology because it does not require chemical pretreatment and allows for …
CHARACTERISATION OF X-RAY REFLECTIVITY OF FLAT AND CURVED PYROLYTIC GRAPHITE MOSAIC CRYSTALSY. Van Haarlem, J. Tickner…We have measured the X-ray reflection properties of a variety of flat and doubly-curved HOPG and HAPG materials. Measurements of mosaicity and peak and integrated reflectivity were made as a function of crystal thickness, the method of material …
COMBINED ELEMENTAL XRF AND PHASE XRD ANALYSES OF A METEORITEF. Tañeza-Casco, T. Witzke, N. Norberg…Knowing more about the composition and mineral phases of meteorites bring us a step closer to understanding how the solar system was formed. X -ray diffraction (XRD) is a good technique used to investigate phase composition of meteorites, but it…
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE REFINEMENTS OF PYROPE-MAJORITE SOLID SOLUTIONS BETWEEN PRP100MJ0 AND PRP17MJ83S. M. Antao, N. S. Suarez Nieto, L.A. Cruickshank, G. D. Gwanmesia…The Prp-Mj solid solutions, [8] X3 [6] Y2 [4] Z3 [4] O12, from Prp100, Mg3[Al]2Si3O12, to Mj100, Mg3[MgSi]2Si3O12, are expressed as Mg3(MgxSixAl2-2x)Si3O12, 0  x  1, and are formed by cation exchange in the Y site because 2Al 3+ (0.535 Å) = M…
DISCRIMINATING GLASS FRAGMENTS USING MICRO-XRF SPECTROMETRY WITH POLY-CAPILLARY OPTICSFlannery, David T (3225-Caltech)…The typical issue is to compare glass fragmets from a kow source to fragmets from a ukow source ad show that the ukow fragmets are either cosistet or icosistet with the kow fragmets. There are various testig methods available to the aalyst iclud…
EDGE-ABSORPTION NON-DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPYJ. Van Wagoner*, S. Cornaby, S. Kamtekar, K. Kozaczek…A non-dispersive XRF (NDXRF) system will instead use a set of filters in front of a simple x-ray flux counter, such as a proportional counter, photodiode or scintillation counter. The filters on an NDXRF system are selected to allow or block out…
ENHANCING PDF DATA QUALITY ON A LABORATORY POWDER DIFFRACTOMETERT. Hartmann, L. Fink, N. Schrodt…INTRODUCTION In the recent past, the calculation of the pair distribution function (PDF) became more and more common as a new method to obtain structural information from complex materials beyond the Bragg equation and crystallographic PXRD anal…
INVESTIGATION OF NANOSTRUCTURE MATERIALS FOR DEVELOPING NEW X-RAY REFERENCE MATERIALSB.Kodess, P.Kodess…The diffraction pattern of the nitrides steel of this batch of steel samples includes various broadenings of Bragg reflections occurring because of distortion of the crystal lattice. In the round-robin experiment eight organizations participated…
LOW POWER TXRF KITJ. Kawai, H. Shino, H. Nagai, Y. Nakajima…Those who want to use these kind of portable TXRF spectrometers know very well about the technical details of the X-ray experiment, and thus a kit is sometimes enough. With a screwdriver, the TXRF spectrometer can be assembled, and the users can…
MICROXRF ANALYSIS OF ASTROBIOLOGICALLY-SIGNIFICANT GEOLOGICAL SAMPLESD. T. Flannery, A. C. Allwood, W. T. Elam, R. Hodyss, D. R. Thompson and L. Wade…Here, we set out to demonstrate µm-cm scale micro-XRF elemental mapping of ancient (~3.5 Ga) microbial sedimentary features using a prototype of the Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry (PIXL). The micro-XRF system provided rapid, textu…
MONITORING OF COS2 REACTIONS USING HIGH TEMPERATURE XRD COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY (GC)M.A. Rodriguez, J.J.M. Griego, C.D. Mowry, A.S. Pimentel, T.M. Anderson, E.N. Coker…When CoS2 cathode materials were analyzed in an air environment, oxidation of the K(Br,Cl) salt phase in the cathode led to the formation of K2SO4 that subsequently reacted with the pyrite-type CoS2 phase leading to cathode decomposition between…
NEW CAPABILITIES FOR ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC MATERIALS USING THE ICDD PDF-4/ORGANICS DATABASES. Kabekkodu, S. Gates, A. Gindhart, M. Rost, T. Blanton, T. Fawcett…There are several formats intended to serve different groups of users. The PDF-4/Organics™ database is designed to help analyze materials, with an emphasis on organics, by powder diffraction techniques. It works seamlessly with commercial analys…
ONE SHOT ANALYSIS USING WIDE-RANGE HIGH-SPEED DETECTORR. Ogawa*, Y. Okamoto, H. Sekiguchi, H. Furukawa, K. Koyanagi, D. Davis…It is necessary to scan a wide range of angles in order to collect a pattern of peaks for identification in qualitative analysis, whereas only a few specific peaks need to be acquired for quantitative analysis. “OneSight”, a wide-range high-spee…
RESULTS FROM A NEW LOW-Z HIGH-Z TXRF SPECTROMETERK. Sanyal, B. Kanrar, S. Dhara, N.L. Misra, P. Wobrauschek*, C. Streli…The spectrometer does not require LN2 cooling for detector and water cooling for anodes of X-ray tubes. These features make it very compact and well suited for a Radiochemistry laboratory. The capability of the instrument was tested in terms of …
SAMPLE PREPARATION FOR TXRF ANALYSIS OF METAL PARTICLES IN USED MACHINE OILS AND PRELIMINARY RESEARCH FOR APPLICATION OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIST. Matsuno, Y. Tabuchi, R. Hosomi, T. Hasegawa, N. Kometani, K. Tsuji…When used vacuum pump oil was measured by TXRF, quantitative TXRF analysis was difficult with internal standard technique because homogeneous solution was not obtained. Thus, a surfactant was added to the sample to mix the oil and the solution h…
SECONDARY EXITATION OBSERVED IN LATERAL SCAN USING CONFOCAL MICRO-XRFN. Kawahara, T. Matsuno, K. Tsuji, Y. Takimoto…A lateral scan near the border was performed at different depths. Characteristic secondary excitation of iron was observed in the Fe Kα intensity profile at 40 µm in depth, while it was not observed by lateral scan near the surface. In addition,…
SINGLE-CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF DRUG POWDER SAMPLE BY SYNCHROTRON RADIATION MICROBEAM X-RAYT. Hashimoto, S. Honda, N. Yasuda, S. Kimura, S. Hayakawa, Y. Nishiwaki, M. Takata…To demonstrate the usefulness of synchrotron radiation (SR) microbeam X-ray structure analysis, we applied the method to determine the structure of diphenidine hydrochloride and 4-methoxy-PCP hydrochloride whose crystal structures are unknown. T…
SYNCHROTRON X-RAY DIFFRACTION OF A FRICTION STIR PROCESSED AL0.1COCRFENI HIGH ENTROPY ALLOYN.A Ley, M. Komarasamy, R. Mishra, M.L. Young, M. Carl…HEAs have advantages over traditional alloys due to their lack of precipitate formation and growth at higher temperatures and their reduced cost because of cheaper alloying components. In this study, we examine an Al0.1CoCrFeNi HEA after frictio…
THE BENEFITS OF SMALL SPOT MAPPING ANALYSIS IN PRODUCTION PROCESS TROUBLESHOOTING USING AN EDXRF SPECTROMETERF. Tañeza-Casco…Often, the inhomogeneity can be traced back to an error in the production process of a product. By knowing the sample homogeneity, manufacturers can trace back and optimize their process in order to create better quality products. Small spot ana…
THIN FILM XRF SPECIMEN PREPARATION: IMPROVEMENTS OVER THE DRIED SPOT APPROACHFlannery, David T (3225-Caltech)…Dissolved plutonium metal samples were cast as small drops on Kapton film, and a surfactant was added to disperse the solution uniformly across the Kapton. After drying the specimens, they were sealed in a cell for analysis. The method provided …
WD-XRF IMAGING WITH POLYCAPILLARY OPTICS UNDER GLANCING INCIDENCE GEOMETRYY. Takimoto, M. Yamanashi, S. Kato, T. Shoji, N. Kometani, K. Tsuji…In this spectrometer, a straight type polycapillary optic was applied instead of a Soller slit which is used in conventional WD-XRF spectrometers. The straight type polycapillary optic worked as a 2D collimator for fluorescent X-rays to keep the…
WORLDWIDE DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL-REFLECTION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE, ITS CAPACITY, ACCEPTANCE AND TRENDS. A SURVEY.R. Klockenkämper, A. von Bohlen…Users come from scientific institutes, from working places at synchrotron beam-lines and from labs in semiconductor fabs. The capacity of TXRF will be demonstrated by nine different examples of analysis. TXRF has some special characteristic adva…
X-RAY AND NEUTRON TOTAL SCATTERING ANALYSIS OF HY∙(BI0.2CA0.55SR0.25)(AG0.25NA0.75)NB3O10∙XH2O PEROVSKITE NANOSHEET BOOKLETS WITH STACKING DISORDERP. Metz*, B. Cladek, S.T. Misture, J. Neuefeind, K. Page, R. Koch…The perovskite layer contents were defined initially using combined synchrotron x-ray and neutron Rietveld refinement of the parent Aurivillius structure. The structure of the subsequently ion exchanged material, which is disordered in its stack…
X-RAY FLUORESCENCE DETERMINATION WITH MICRO-GLASS BEADS USING ONE-MILLIGRAM OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SAMPLES. Ichikawa, T. Nakamura…Calibration curves for this method were obtained using synthetic standards, prepared by compounding chemical reagents (oxides, carbonates, and diphosphates) containing the analytes, The calibrations had good linearity and lower limits of detecti…
X‐RAY INVESTIGATIONS OF SOLID SOLUTIONS AND PHASE TRANSITIONS OF MONOCALCIUMALUMINATE AND MONOBARIUMALUMINATE USE IN CEMENT, PHOSPHORESCENCE AND RADIATION PROTECTION APPLICATIONSH. Pöllman, R. Kaden…Based on Calcium Aluminate Cements, the replacement of calcium by strontium and barium leads to cements which can be used at elevated temperatures in refractory applications. Alkaline earth aluminates also can be used in the field of phosphoresc…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2014 – VOL58

A NEW METHODICAL APPROACH BASED ON COMPTON SCATTERING AND XRF: QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF CO2 AND LOSS ON IGNITION IN QUICKLIMEM. Inoue, Y. Yamada, M. Kitamura, N. Gotoh, N. Kawahara, M. Mantler…Total LOI is determined by the Compton scattered Rh K tube radiation which is used di- rectly in the calibration equation. The resulting calibration curve for LOI including matrix cor- rection shows an accuracy of 0.15 mass%. The carbon content …
A NEW MULTISTRIP DIFFRACTION DETECTOR WITH ENERGY RESOLUTIONP. Storer, N. Absalom, R. Clapp…The detector is a fast readout 1D solid state silicon strip detector which can be retrofitted to a diffractometer goniometer arm or any other X-ray system to count X-rays. The detector uses a 96 strip silicon sensor with associated counting and …
ADVANCED X-RAY WINDOW DESIGN AND TESTINGM. Harker, J. Abbott, J. Wong…The manufacturing process is currently limited to 40°C with differential pressure. Many detector manufacturers would like to go to higher temperatures for quicker and more effective outgassing of the detector assembly. At Moxtek, Inc. a manufact…
AGING OF EXPLOSIVE CRYSTALS (RDX) INVESTIGATED BY X-RAY DIFFRACTIONM. Herrmann, M.A. Bohn…The investigations revealed different behavior of the RDX types. Whereas microstrain released in I-RDX, further crystal damage occurred in S-RDX during the aging treatment. INTRODUCTION AND AGING Reduced sensitivity (RS) variants of high explosi…
CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF THE BEAM PROFILE OF POLYCAPILLARY LENSES .. AN APPLICATION STUDYM. Bremekamp, J. Leske, B. Nensel, V. Rößiger, M. Haller, J. Bogert, S. Bjoumikova…V). A quantification of this effect is a prerequisite for any microstructural quantitative analysis. In this contribution we characterize and quantify the intensity beam profile of different polycapillaries and predict the impact on the quantifi…
CHARACTERIZATION OF A PORTABLE X-RAY DEVICE FOR RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENTSJ. Ling, S.-Y. Lee…In order to quantify the instrument precision and accuracy of the stress values, a series of measurements with stress-free ferrite powder and a solid platinum specimen were conducted using both the traditional sin2 and the less- methods. The pre…
CHARACTERIZATION OF NAFION PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FILMS USING WIDE-ANGLE X-RAY DIFFRACTIONT.N. Blanton, R. Koestner…Pores in a Nafion membrane allow for the movement of cations, however the membrane does not conduct anions or electrons. Depending on the manufacturing process, the cation conductivity of a Nafion membrane can be modified to meet a specified app…
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT EXCITATION MODES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF LIGHT ELEMENTS WITH A TXRF VACUUM CHAMBERJ. Prost, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli…In the first set of experiments two water- cooled high-power X-ray tubes with Cr (Z = 25) and Cu (Z = 29) anodes respectively were compared with an air-cooled low power tube with Mo anode (Z = 42) and a thin Be window for the transmission of Mo-…
CONTROL OF SPHERICAL OPTICS STRESS BY X-RAY TOPOGRAPHYR.Vitt, J. Maj, S. Krasnicki, L. Maj , G. Navrotski, P. Chow, S. Mikula…The crystal bending is characterized by x-ray topography. Examples of recorded topographic images and the corresponding rocking curves are presented. Use of the new technology can lead to production of nearly uniformly concave single-crystal sui…
CRYSTAL ORIENTATION MEASUREMENTS USING SEM-EBSD UNDER UNCONVENTIONAL CONDITIONSK. Kunze…The vast majority of EBSD measurements is applied to planar and polished surfaces of polycrystalline bulk specimen. In this contribution we present examples of using EBSD and EDX to analyze specimens that are not flat, not planar, or not bulk – …
EDXRF STUDIES ON ANCIENT CHINESE CERAMICSY. Gong, J. Gu, Y. Xiong…Since the 1990s, Shanghai Museum has carried out a number of projects involving the analysis of ancient Chinese ceramics. A few application examples using either benchtop XRF or micro-XRF system are described in this paper in order to give reade…
EFFECT OF WELDING PARAMETERS ON RESIDUAL STRESSES OF FRICTION STIR WELDED ALUMINUM ALLOYZ. Dou, C. Ma, P. Zhang, Y. Li, M. Wang, P. Dong, L. Chen, L. Zheng, J. Zhang…Institute of Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621700, China; 3. Sichuan Yijing Technology Group Co., LTD., Mianyang, 621700, China; 4. Southwest Technology and Engineering Research Institute, Chongqing 400039, China; 5….
EXPLOITING MYTHEN DETECTOR FOR HIGH-ACCURACY STRUCTURE ANALYSISD. Šišak Jung, Ch. Hörmann…Based on the MYTHEN detector, this work addresses two topics: (i) what is single-photon counting and (ii) how does this technology enhance accuracy in structure analysis using XRPD data. (i) The first topic covers basics of single-photon-countin…
FLUX COMPARISONS OF MINIATURE X-RAY SOURCES: XRF WATTAGE-MAPS BY APPLICATIONS. Cornaby, K. Kozaczek…ULTRA-LITE® have a voltage range of 4 to 50 kV and a power range of 0.1 to 4 watts, and are designed for handheld devices which can easily be powered by a battery. X-ray sources such as the Moxtek,. MAGPRO®, have voltage range of 4 to 60 kV and …
HUMIDITY EXPERIMENTS ON A LABORATORY DIFFRACTOMETER WITH A FULLY AUTOMATIC COUPLED TEMPERATURE-HUMIDITY CONTROLO. Narygina, H. van Weeren, C. Resch, S. Zellnitz…Due to the strong dependence of RH from T the experimental path through T-RH space should be chosen very carefully in order to avoid strong fluctuations in RH and possible condensation inside a non-ambient chamber. We have developed and tested t…
IN-SITU ENERGY-DISPERSIVE X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDY OF A COMMERCIAL LITHIUM IRON PHOSPHATE/GRAPHITE 18650 CELLW. Paxton, Z. Zhong, T. Tsakalakos…Time-resolved energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) spectra were collected using a germanium energy detector at a fixed angle of 3 degrees. The data show the full evolution of lithium-ions moving from the graphite negative electrode to the…
LOCATING TRACE PLUTONIUM IN CONTAMINATED SOIL USING MICRO-XRF IMAGINGC.G. Worley, K.J. Spencer, H. Boukhalfa, R.C. Roback…Because the specimen had previously been prepared for analysis by scanning electron microscopy, it was coated with gold to eliminate electron beam charging. However, this significantly hindered efforts to detect plutonium by MXRF. The gold L pea…
MECHANICAL STRESS X-RAY EMISSION FROM PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS. Imashuku, S. Hifumi, K. Yokoi, S. Matsuoka, J. Kawai…In the report, we speculated that piezoelectricity of sugar candy was related to the X-ray emission. Here, we investigated optical and X-ray spectra of piezoelectric materials in order to clarify the relationship between piezoelectricity and mec…
MINERALOGICAL EFFECTS OF SULFUR IN HANDHELD XRFM. Cameron, A. Seyfarth…The spectra were calculated with three different calibration methods to quantify the S effect on Fe and to determine what calibration method would best compensate for the effect in a handheld XRF instrument. Empirically-determined matrix coeffic…
NEW NEUTRON DIFFRACTION DATA CAPABILITY IN THE PDF-4+ 2014 RELATIONAL DATABASEJ. Faber, C. Crowder, J. Blanton, S. Kabekkodu, O. Gourdon, T. Blanton, T. Fawcett…Elements in the periodic table often have quite different scattering amplitudes. Unlike standard laboratory x-ray sources, neutrons are available both at nuclear reactors and pulsed sources. These facilities are available world-wide. In this pap…
QUANTITATIVE TEXTURE ANALYSIS VIA TILT-A-WHIRL ANDMAUDM.A. Rodriguez, J.D. Carroll, J.J.M. Griego, L.A. Deibler…We have extended our analysis to incorporate the use of the software MAUD to obtain quantitative texture characterization. With this new functionality, we have characterized single-crystal Tantalum dogbone tension bars before and after loading. …
RECONSTRUCTION OF ORIGINAL INTENSITY FROM COVERED SAMPLESR.I. Barabash, T.R. Watkins, R.A. Meisner, T.D. Burchell, T.M. Rosseel…While candidate covering films appear visually transparent, they are not necessarily x-ray transparent. Each film material has unique beam attenuation. Further amorphous peaks can be superimposed onto those from the sample. To reconstruct the sc…
RESPONSE FUNCTION OF SILICON DRIFT DETECTORS FOR LOW ENERGY X-RAYSR.H. Redus, A.C. Huber…An incomplete charge collection (ICC) layer of 100 to 200 nm is often found near the surface of the active volume of these SDDs. X-rays interacting in the ICC layer cause significant differences from the ideal Gaussian photopeak response due to …
SECONDARY EXCITATION PROCESS FOR QUANTITATIVE CONFOCAL 3D-XRF ANALYSISK. Tsuji, A. Tabe, P. Wobrauscheck, C. Streli…E-mail: tsuji@a-chem.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp ABSTRACT X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a well established method for quantitative elemental analysis. For accurate quantification, secondary excitation has to be taken into account. In this paper, the second…
SIMULATION TOOLS AND REFERENCES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF NANOMATERIALST.G. Fawcett, S.N. Kabekkodu, J.R. Blanton, C.E. Crowder, T.N. Blanton…These tools are embedded software in the PDF-4 relational database family. The tools include algorithms to help in phase identification, crystallite size and distribution measurements, and measuring molecular orientation. In addition to these to…
STRESS DETERMINATION THROUGH DIFFRACTION: ESTABLISHING THE LINK BETWEEN KRÖNER AND VOIGT/REUSS LIMITSC.E. Murray, J.L. Jordan-Sweet, S.W. Bedell, E.T. Ryan…X-ray elastic constants (XEC) relate the strain as measured using x-rays to the state of stress in a quasi-isotropic ensemble of grains. However, the corresponding interaction models (e.g: Voigt and Reuss limits) often possess unlikely assumptio…
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW TERNARY YTTRIUM.. RARE EARTH SESQUIOXIDES FORMED BY THE SOL..GEL TECHNIQUEG. Rafailov, I. Dahan, Z. Porat, D. Moglyanski, R. Zach, J. Zabicky, G. Kimmel…These were divided into two groups, each composed of the same elements but at different stoichiometric ratios; the first group included Y2EuDyO6, YEu2DyO6 and YEuDy2O6, and the second group included Y2EuGdO6, YEu2GdO6 and YEuGd2O6. The compounds…
STRUCTURAL VARIATIONS IN PYROPE-ALMANDINE SOLID SOLUTIONSS.M. Antao, M. Zaman, N.S. Suarez Nieto, V.L. Gontijo, R.A. Marr…Electron- microprobe analyses (EMPA) indicate homogeneous compositions for all the samples and HRPXRD data show that they are all single phases. Light microscopy shows that they are all optically isotropic. Several linear structural trend lines …
THE MEASUREMENT OF MASS ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT AT CU K.. WAVELENGTH OF POWDER XRD SAMPLES USING PARALLEL BEAM GEOMETRY.N.A. Raftery, B.W. Halstead, J.L. Watts…ABSTRACT In some circumstances, such as the use of the external standard method for Quantitative Phase Analysis (QPA) by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), it is necessary to have an accurate estimate of the sample mass attenuation coefficient at …
USE OF THE RIETVELD METHOD FOR DESCRIBING STRUCTURE AND TEXTURE IN XRD DATA OF SCALE DEPOSITS FORMED IN OIL AND GAS PIPELINES: AN IMPORTANT INDUSTRIAL CHALLENGEH. Sitepu, Rasha A. Al-Ghamdi, S.R. Zaidi, S. Shen…Preferred orientation can cause serious systematic errors in both quantitative phase analysis and crystal structure determination. It has been indicated that the generalized spherical harmonic (GSH) description provided a better Rietveld fit tha…
XRD PHASE IDENTIFICATION AND RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE TURBINE BLADE SAMPLES BEFORE AND AFTER HEAT TREATMENTS. Shen, A.H. Mustafa, S.R. Zaidi, H. Sitepu; A.Y. Kawaie…Their physical properties and microstructure may degrade after long operating hours. Heat treatment is an industry recognized technique to restore the material to its original properties or best possible condition. In this study, a first stage t…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2013 – VOL57

A NEW “CHAIN” OF EVENTS: POLYMERS IN THE POWDER DIFFRACTION FILETM (PDF®)S.D. Gates, T.N. Blanton, T.G. Fawcett…Initially, the PDF was geared towards the identification of unknown crystalline materials by comparison of d-spacings and peak intensities. Today, the International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) maintains and continuously enhances the quali…
AEROSOL FILTER ANALYSIS USING POLARIZED OPTICS EDXRF WITH THIN FILM FP METHODT. Moriyama, A. Morikawa, M. Doi, S. Fess…XRF is an important at- mospheric aerosol monitoring tool for inorganic component analysis, because XRF is rapid and easy analysis method. In particular EDXRF has drawn attention for aerosol analysis. However EDXRF has difficulties that (1) many…
CHARACTERIZING FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS BASED ANALYSIS FOR SOIL-CERAMIC MATRICES IN POLARIZED ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY (PEDXRF)W.A. Abuhani, N. Dasgupta-Schubert, L.M. Villaseñor Cendejas…Mexico. * Correspondence: abuhani.waleed@gmail.com ABSTRACT Analytical PEDXRF spectrometry (PEDXRFS) represents a substantial advancement over conventional XRF. The higher Signal to Noise (S/N) commensurate with background lowering and better en…
COMPARISON OF CALCULATION METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLESMichelle Cameron…A full FP, full empirical, and hybrid calibration were tested. The empirical calibration gave better results for standards within the calibration range and for most standards outside the calibration range. Effects of increasing LOI were mixed, a…
DIFFERENTIATION OF SURFACE CONTAMINANTS AND IMPLANTED MATERIAL ON GENESIS SOLAR WIND SAMPLES USING TOTAL REFLECTION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY AND GRAZING INCIDENCE X-RAY FLUORESCENCEM. Schmeling, P.J. Eng, J.E. Stubbs, Y. Choi, I.V. Veryovkin…Unfortunately the space craft crash landed upon return to Earth shattering the collectors into small fragments and exposing them to desert soil and spacecraft debris. Thus only small fragments are available for analysis with each having differen…
EVALUATION OF FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR QUANTITATIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE OF POLYOLEFINSD.W. Burns, M. Wright, S. Yusuf…XRF is a matrix dependent analysis and accurate results require standards of similar matrices. The preparation of blended, matrix-matched polymer standards requires extensive effort and resources. Another quantitative approach is fundamental par…
EXAMINING ELEMENTAL DISTRIBUTIONS IN THREE DIMENSIONS USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL MICRO-XRF IMAGINGC.G. Worley, P.T. Martinez, K.J. Kuhn, L. Tandon…In addition to collecting two-dimensional elemental distribution maps of the coupon surface, three-dimensional elemental information was inferred based upon attenuation differences between the high energy U L and low energy U M X-rays. Only alum…
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE ENERGY DEPENDENCE OF PHOTOIONIZATION CROSS-SECTIONS IN SUBSHELLS USING AN EDX SPECTROMETERM. Doi, N. Kawahara, S. Hara, M. Mantler…Conventionally its values are derived by the assumption that the jump ratios between sub-shells have no energy dependency. However, cal- culations based on recent theoretical cross sections and elaborate experiments with synchrotron radiation so…
HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN LENS AND AQUEOUS HUMOR OF CATARACT PATIENTS BY TOTAL REFLECTION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRYM. Schmeling, B.I. Gaynes, S. Tidow-Kebritchi…To shed light into this subject, aqueous humor and lens samples were collected from 14 cataract patients to study the presence and concentration of selected metals in the eye. Subjects undergoing routine cataract surgery were consecutively enrol…
IN-SITU MONITORING OF VANADIUM DIOXIDE FORMATION USING HIGH TEMPERATURE XRDM.A. Rodriguez, N.S. Bell, J.J. M. Griego, C.V. Edney, P.G. Clem…Synthesis of VO2 can be challenging due to the variability of vanadium oxide phases that may be formed. We have employed High Temperature X-Ray Diffraction (HTXRD) to monitor the reaction process of Vanadium Oxide Precursor (VOP) powders to form…
INVESTIGATION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM PYROELECTRIC CRYSTALK. Ohira, S. Imashuku, J. Kawai…At the same time, we examined an electron irradiation area using a fluorescent plate. When the cooling rate of a LiTaO3 crystal was over 0.3 K/s, X-ray emission continued for less than 15 seconds. X-ray emission stopped by a discharge between th…
ISO 9516-1 SIMPLIFIED BORATE FUSION / WDXRF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR IRON ORE INCLUDING TOTAL IRON ANALYSIS: PART 2M. Bouchard, A. Milliard, S. Rivard, S. Ness…This updated method allows for the simplification of both laboratory and spectrometry processes and so, in comparison with the original ISO method, becomes less restrictive in practice. This method was used to prepare a large variety of iron ore…
LOW COST ROLLED X-RAY PRISM LENSES TO INCREASE PHOTON FLUX DENSITY IN DIFFRACTOMETRY EXPERIMENTSH. Vogt, A. Last, J. Mohr, F. Marschall, K.U. Mettendorf, R. Eisenhower, M. Simon…Due to its comparably easy fabrication method and the large aperture the so called Rolled X-ray Prism Lenses (RXPL) have the potential to be used with X-ray tubes in industrial environment as a low cost alternative to existing optics. The lens i…
MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION FROM DIFFRACTION INTENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN . DIRECTIONBob He…The 2θ-profile can be evaluated for phase identification, crystal structure refinement and many applications with many existing algorithms and software. In order to evaluate the materials structure associated with the intensity distribution alon…
MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENCE IN FOOD FORENSICS & FOOD SAFETYV.L. St. Jeor, C.A. Lendon…It is also compared to electron-based Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Both systems are generally considered non-destructive methods for determining elemental composition; however µXRF demonstrates specific advantages for elements heavier t…
MICROANALYSIS OF RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS USING AN ELECTRON BEAM FROM A PYROELECTRIC CRYSTALS. Imashuku, A. Imanishi, K. Hanasaki, K. Ohira, I. Ohtani, J. Kawai…We utilized characteristic X-rays and visible lights emitted from rare-earth elements for the analysis. Only characteristic X-rays of rare-earth elements contained in a sample was detected by focusing the electron beam on an area with a diameter…
OUT OF PLANE ORIENTATION AND CRYSTALLINITY OF BIAXIALLY STRETCHED POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATES. Bandla, M. Allahkarami, J.C. Hanan…Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a semi-crystalline polymer, exhibits a microstructure reliant on process and thermal history. PET undergoes strain-induced crystallization, making it sensitive to mechanical stretching. As the level of crystalli…
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF PORTABLE XRF INSTRUMENTS: A MINERAL EXPLORATION INDUSTRY PROSPECTIVEN.W. Brand, C.J. Brand…The advancement over the past decade in handheld or portable XRF instruments allows for real time ‘fit for purpose’ data to be collected allowing for real time assessments and decisions to be made assuming the instruments are used correctly and …
RESIDUAL STRESS AND QUANTITATIVE PHASE MAPPING ON COMPLEX GEOMETRIESM. Allahkarami, J.C. Hanan…Implementing complex curved surfaces in engineering components in combination with finite element geometry optimization has become a prevalent means of designing a part. Measuring residual stresses using X-ray diffraction on complex curved surfa…
REVISIT OF FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF ARSENIC POISONING CASE 1998Windows ユーザー…The spectra were measured at SPring-8 synchrotron facility by Nakai in December 1998 and Mo, Sn, Sb, and Bi were used as index elements at that time to demonstrate that the suspected saleswoman’s pesticide and that found near the curry pot were …
STABILITY AND STRUCTURE CHANGES OF NA-TITANATE NANOTUBES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURElcx…Our results show that the nanotubes can be stable at ~ 400 °C. Higher temperature annealing of nanotubes result in opening and flattening of the nanotubes, and subsequent structural transformation to Na2Ti6O13-based structure via an intermediate…
STUDY OF IMPURITIES IN SRM 640C AND SRM 660A USING DIFFRACTION DATA FROM 11BM AT THE APSJohn Faber…These samples are used to calibrate the instrument and are contained in thin-wall Kapton ® containers. GSAS and GSAS-II were used to fit the experimental data. The structures for these SRMs are well established and the fitted models here are in …
THE ELECTRONIC AGE – EDX AND OTHER MODERN TECHNIQUES TO THE PRESENT AND BEYONDM. Mantler…Naturally this has its origin in the early transis- tors and the first semiconductor junction detectors of the late 1940’s. It was followed by refinement of semiconductor detector technology in general and particularly by the in- vention of Li-d…
THE GENERALIZED SIN2 . METHOD AN ADVANCED SOLUTION FOR X-RAY STRESS ANALYSIS IN TEXTURED MATERIALSA. Haase, M. Klatt, A. Schafmeister, R. Stabenow, B. Ortner…According to EN 15305 there is currently no existing solution for this problem. A method is presented that solves this problem. It is based on two tools: i) The use of a 1D detector having a large capture angle that yields the full diffraction p…
UNDERFILM CORROSION OF STEEL SHEETS OBSERVED BY CONFOCAL 3D-XRF TECHNIQUEK. Akioka, T. Nakazawa, T. Doi, M. Arai, K. Tsuji…A painted steel sheet was prepared by applying electrodeposition coating onto an electro galvanized steel sheet with a zinc phosphate conversion coating. The spatial resolution of the confocal micro-XRF was about 10.9 μm at an energy of 17.4 keV…
USAGE OF THE X-RAY TOPOGRAPHY UNIT FOR PRODUCING HIGH-QUALITY CONCAVE OPTICSJ. Maj, C. Harmata, L. Maj, G. Navrotski, P. Chow, L. Assoufid…However, the systematic approach for the use of the topography unit for the construction of high-quality concave optics has never been published. Residual stress in permanent concave bending optics has been a long-standing issue that had remaine…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION CHARACTERIZATION OF A DISTORTED DEBYE-SCHERRER FILM STRIP – THE EFFECT OF DEACETYLATION ON CELLULOSE TRIACETATE AND AN IMPROVED STRUCTURAL MODEL FOR CELLULOSE IIT.N. Blanton, J.A. Kaduk. Q. Johnson…An investigation using X-ray diffraction, XRD, was carried out to determine the cause of the physical change in the film strip. As expected, silver phases were detected, due to the photographic capture layer coated on the surface of all traditio…
X-RAY INVESTIGATIONS OF SOLID SOLUTIONS OF MONOCALCIUM ALUMINATE AND MONOSTRONTIUM ALUMINATE IMPORTANT PHASES IN CEMENT AND PHOSPHORESCENCE MATERIALSH. Pöllmann, R. Kaden…The amount of incorporation of foreign ions influences the hydration behaviour. Strontium aluminate is an important phase in producing phosphorescent materials when doped with REE as like Eu, Dy, La. These monoaluminates occur in different modif…
X-RAY SCATTERING ON CASEIN MICELLES AND HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (HDL) GRANULES DURING PROCESSING OF FOODSDr. Ronald Gebhardt…Interactions with surfaces and interfaces during processing lead to changes in their structure and functional properties. We use surface-sensitive X-ray scattering to explore structural changes occuring in CM during cross-flow filtration and in …


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2012 – VOL56

ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR OBSERVED POWDER DIFFRACTION INTENSITY DATA BASED ON MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATIONT. Ida, F. Izumi…The method can optimize not only the parameters adjusted in the Rietveld refinement, but also parameters to specify errors in a model for the statistical properties of the observed intensity. The results of the structure refinements about fluora…
APPLICATION OF MICRO-XRF FOR NUCLEAR MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION AND PROBLEM SOLVINGC.G. Worley, L. Tandon, P.T. Martinez, D.L. Decker…Scanning Electron Microscopy). Up until the past 10 to 15 years, Micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) instrumentation had been relatively uncommon, and even currently, it is underutilized for spatially resolved nuclear materials analysis and imaging….
CHARACTERIZATION OF X-RAY IRRADIATED GRAPHENE OXIDE COATINGS USING X-RAY DIFFRACTION, X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPYT.N. Blanton, D. Majumdar…X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) have been used to characterize GO before and after irradiation. Results indicate that GO exposed to high-energy radiation is converted to an amorp…
COMPARING EXISTING MAC TABLES – HINTS TO POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTSPierre Caussin…The idea of comparing table i not new (De Boer), but current oftware tool make it poible to quickly develop interactive oftware to analyze the dicrepancie in finer detail and get hint to the reaon for the difference. Such a tool ha been created …
DESIGN OF AN IN-SITU XRF INSTRUMENT FOR ELEMENTAL DIFFUSION MEASUREMENTSW.T. Elam, T. Grundl, O.X. Leupin, M. Descostes…Quantifying concentration gradients of the diffusing tracers requires the lowest possible detection limits, so we have performed calculations to aid in the experiment and apparatus design. Calculating the minimum detection limit (MDL) requires k…
DETERMINATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF A SILICON DRIFT DETECTOR (SDD) BY MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONA. Rakotondrajoa, G. Buzanich, M. Radtke, U. Reinholz, H. Riesemeier, L. Vincze, R. Raboanary…This work presents a new approach in determining this efficiency, having the advantages to be fast and easy to implement, making it a good alternative to the more time-consuming standard method. Primarily, a multielement reference material was m…
ELEMENTAL DEPTH PROFILING OF FORENSIC SAMPLES BY CONFOCAL 3D-XRF METHODS. Emoto, K. Otsuki, K. Nakano, K. Tsuji…E-mail: tsuji@a-chem.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp ABSTRACT We report the feasibility of discrimination of leather samples related to forensic science by applying confocal 3D-XRF method. The laboratory made confocal 3D-XRF has a spatial resolution of about…
FIELD APPLICATIONS OF PXRF FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE DIAGNOSTICS: RAPID IN-FIELD ARCHAEOLOGICAL ANALYSES IN THE FAYNAN ANCIENT COPPER PRODUCTION ZONE, JORDANK. Bennallack, L. Hahn, T.E. Levy…Levy, Ph.D., Department of Anthropology, California Institute of Telecommunication and Information Technology, University of California, San Diego ABSTRACT The development of portable scientific instruments for characterizing archaeological mate…
HIGH RESOLUTION TRACE ELEMENT DISTRIBUTION AND STRUCTURE OF THE MUSSEL SHELL PERNA VIRIDIS FROM MANILA BAY, PHILIPPINESV.A. Innis-Samson, M. Mizusawa, K. Sakurai…XRD shows an amorphous structure for the green pigment on the surface followed immediately by an aragonite structure with a slight deviation from the reference data. Micro-XRF with 20 keV excitation energy shows the major elements Ca, Br and Sr …
IMPROVEMENT OF X-RAY REFLECTIVITY CALCULATIONS ON A MULTILAYERED SURFACEY. Fujii…However, the calculated result showed a strange phenomenon in that the amplitude of the oscillation due to interference effects increases in the case of a specific roughness of the surface. We proposed that the strange result has its origin in a…
METHODS FOR MOUNTING RADIOACTIVE POWDERS FOR XRD ANALYSISL.N. Squires, R.D. Mariani, T. Hartmann, J.R. Kennedy…Since these materials are easily dispersed, it is not possible to prepare them for analysis in a standard laboratory fume hood or on a laboratory bench top. The materials must be contained to ensure that no radioactive contamination is released …
MICRO X-RAY BEAM PRODUCED WITH A SINGLE GLASS CAPILLARY FOR XRF ANALYSISS. Komatani, S. Hirano, T. Aoyama, Y. Yokota, H. Ueda, K. Tsuji…Kisshoin-Miyanohigashi-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 601-8510, Japan ABSTRACT XRF analysis is available for the quantification of elements and provides a great advantage in material science. Although XRF analysis has the advantage of nondestructi…
MOXTEK.S NEW ULTRA-LITE X-RAY SOURCES: PERFORMACE CHARACTERIZATIONSS. Cornaby, S. Morris, J. Smith, D. Reynolds, K. Kozaczek…The characterization test fall into three categories: environmental stress, X-ray flux and spot stability and repeatability, and a multi-settings evaluation. Examples are given of data collected from these characterization tests from evaluation …
MULTI LENGTH SCALE CHARACTERISATION OF AUSTENITE IN TRIP STEELS USING HIGH-ENERGY X-RAY DIFFRACTIONR. Blondé, E. Jimenez-Melero, L. Zhao, J.P. Wright, E. Brück, S. van der Zwaag, N.H. van Dijk…The stability of austenite has been studied at different length scales during tensile tests and at variable temperatures down to 153 K. A powder diffraction analysis has been performed to correlate the macroscopic behavior of the material to the…
NANOCRYSTALLINE ZINC OXIDE POWDER FOR X-RAY DIFFRACTION METROLOGYJ.P. Cline, J.J. Ritter, D. Black, J.E. Bonevich, A. Henins…The size of the crystallites is determined by the specifics of the thermal processing which were chosen to yield crystallites in two size ranges, one with a distribution centered at approximately 15 nm and another centered at 70 nm. The resultin…
PHASE TRANSITION BEHAVIOR OF A PROCESSED THERMAL BATTERYJ.J.M. Griego, M.A Rodriguez, D.E. Wesolowski…The transition of interest in this paper is the formation of Li7Si3 from Li13Si4 (initial anode material). The unit cell conditions during Li13Si4 transition to Li7Si3 show a contraction of 0.04 and 0.02 Å (a and b-axis respectively), an expansi…
PROBING LARGE WAVEVECTOR PHONONS AT THE NANOSCALE VIA X-RAY THERMAL DIFFUSE SCATTERINGG. Gopalakrishnan, M.V. Holt, K.M. McElhinny, D.A. Czaplewski, P.G. Evans…Experimental probes for phonons with large wavevectors have been largely based on inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering. The signals of inelastic scattering techniques become impractically weak in small ensembles of nanoscale objects, which pos…
QUICK X-RAY REFLECTIVITY OF SPHERICAL SAMPLESK. Stoev, K. Sakurai…This new setup for quick X-ray reflectivity allows measurements to be done within seconds, thus permitting studies of the time evolution of chemical, thermal, and mechanical changes at the surfaces and interfaces of different materials. Since th…
SELECTED APPLICATIONS OF RIETVELD-XRD ANALYSIS FOR RAW MATERIALS OF THE ALUMINUM INDUSTRYF.R. Feret…XRD quantitative phase analysis in the aluminum industry witnessed a steady deployment of the Rietveld method, which at present progressively replaces existing methodologies in research and plant laboratories. Rietveld analysis not only helped t…
SYNTHESIS AND CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC STUDY OF CATION SUBSTITUTED NZP MATERIALS: NA1+XZR2-XMXP3O12 (M=SB, AL, CR AND X=0.1)R. Chourasia, O.P. Shrivastava…It was found that large number of hazardous cations could be loaded in NZP based matrix without significant change of three-dimensional framework structure. Starting from the raw powder diffraction data of polycrystalline solid phases, crystal s…
THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW FORM OF CLENBUTEROL, A WELL KNOWN DECONGESTANT AND BRONCHODILATOR ALSO USED AS A PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING DRUGR. Toro, J. Bruno-Colmenárez, G. Díaz de Delgado, J.M. Delgado…Unidad de Caracterización Estructural de Materiales, Instituto Zuliano de Investigaciones Tecnológicas (INZIT), La Cañada, Zulia, Venezuela. ABSTRACT Clenbuterol hydrochloride is an active pharmaceutical ingredient usually prescribed for the tre…
TILT-A-WHIRL: A TEXTURE ANALYSIS PACKAGE FOR 3D RENDERING OF POLE FIGURES USING MATLABM.A. Rodriugez, M.R. Pearl, M.H. Van Benthem, J.J.M. Griego, J. Pillars…The software routines facilitate phase identification, texture analysis via pole figure visualization, and macrostrain determination. The use of principal component analysis with multivariate curve resolution (PCA/MCR) revealed the extraction of…
USE OF THE RIETVELD METHOD FOR DESCRIBING STRUCTURE AND TEXTURE IN XRD DATA OF DOLOMITE [CAMG(CO3)2] AND HYDROMAGNESITE [MG5(CO3)4(OH)2(H2O)4] POWDERSH. Sitepu, Rasha A. Al-Ghamdi…The results showed that the structural parameters along with the bond lengths agree reasonably well with the single-crystal XRD results. Also, the Rietveld refinement provided reasonable fits for the uniaxially-pressed dolomite and hydromagnesit…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION IMAGING FOR PREDICTIVE METROLOGY OF CRACK PROPAGATION IN 450MM DIAMETER SILICON WAFERSB.K. Tanner, J. Wittge, P. Vagovič, T. Baumbach, D. Allen, P.J. McNally, R. Bytheway, D. Jacques, M.C. Fossati, D.K. Bowen, J. Garagorri, M.R. Elizalde, A.N. Danilewsky…University of Freiburg, Kristallographie, Geowissenschaftliches Institut, Freiburg, Germany 3Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut für Synchrotronstrahlung, Karlsruhe, Germany 4Dublin City University, School of Electronic Engineering, Dubl…
XRAY FLUORESCENCE ASSISTED, MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING OF HISTORIC DRAWINGSS. Stout, F. Kuester, M. Seracini…This information, provides a critical step towards establishing the genesis of an artifact as well as its current state of conservation. A major challenge that remains is the accurate calibration and subsequent fusion of the different data asset…
XRF ANALYSIS OF HIGH GAIN-ON-IGNITION SAMPLES BY FUSION METHOD USING FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETER METHODM. Watanabe, H. Inoue, Y. Yamada, M. Feeney, L. Oelofse, Y. Kataoka…This report describes a FP method for the analysis of non-oxide samples such as metals made into fusion beads. During the fusion process, all non-oxide elements in the sample are oxidized and gain on ignition (GOI) occurs. Volatile elements such…
XRF SENSITIVITY IMPROVEMENT WITH A NOVEL CAPACITIVE CONCENTRATION CELLC. Bupp, D. Dietrich…This method relies upon the fundamental principles of capacitive deionization, where an electrical double-layer capacitor is used to temporarily capture dissolved ions in a semi-selective manner. The efficiency and capacity of an electrical doub…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2011 – VOL55

A SOFTWARE FOR DIFFRACTION STRESS FACTOR CALCULATIONS FOR TEXTURED MATERIALSThomas Gnäupel-Herold…All grain-interaction models that can use the crystallite orientation distribution function (ODF) are incorporated, including Kröner, Hill, inverse Kröner, and Reuss. The functions of the software include: reading the ODF in common textual forma…
AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ACCURACY OF DIFFRACTION STRESS EVALUATION OF TEXTURED MATERIALST. Gnäupel-Herold, A. Creuziger, M.A. Iadicola…Most x-ray diffractometers can be used to perform a measurement of lattice strain vs. tilt angle, which is then converted into stress. The apparent simplicity of the conversion (the sin2ø law comes to mind) betrays the fact that elastic and plas…
ANALYSIS OF TCLP EXTRACTS BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCED.S. Kendall, B.A. Burns, J.A. Suggs, J.J. Mackey…Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine if a waste material is hazardous; the TCLP test is widely used by the environmental testing community. The elements of concern for toxicity are arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury,…
CALIBRATION OF X-RAY IMAGING DEVICES FOR ACCURATE INTENSITY MEASUREMENTM.J. Haugh, M. Charest, P. Ross, J. Lee, M. Schneider, N. Palmer, A. Teruya…The X-ray sources that are used for calibration are both diode type and diode/fluorescer combinations. Calibrating the X-ray detectors is key to accurate calibration of the X-ray sources. Both energy dispersive detectors and photodiodes measurin…
COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING DESIGN OF HTXRD RESISTIVE HEATING STRIPS TO MINIMIZE SAMPLE TEMPERATURE GRADIENTSR. Chandrasekaran, A.R. Drews…Typically, HTXRD stages use a resistive heating strip, where the ends that form the electrical current contacts are maintained near ambient temperature. Because of thermal conduction to the current contacts, the temperature distribution along th…
DESIGN AND MEASUREMENT WITH A NEW PORTABLE X-RAY CAMERA FOR FULL-FIELD FLUORESCENCE IMAGINGI. Ordavo, A. Bjeoumikhov, S. Bjeoumikhova, G. Buzanich, R. Gubzhokov, R. Hartmann, S. Ihle, N. Langhoff, A. Liebel, M. Radtke, U. Reinholz, H. Riesemeier, O. Scharf, H. Soltau…München, Germany 2PNDetector GmbH, Emil-Nolde-Str. 10, 81735, München, Germany 3IFG – Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin, Germany 4BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berli…
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A NEW SAXS SYSTEM FOR BIOLOGICAL SAMPLESN. Suzuki, K. Sasaki, A. Criswell, J.D. Ferrara, L. Jiang, M. Degen…More recently SAXS has been recognized as a complementary tool for extracting structural information from biological systems where X-ray crystallographic methods have failed. SAXS is also considered a useful tool to study behavior of a macromole…
DEVELOPMENT OF 2D DISPERSIVE DEVICE FOR XRF IMAGING SPECTROMETERT. Ohmori, M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, K. Tsuji…Usually, scanning-type elemental mapping is performed. That means, a sample stage is scanned to a fixed X-ray micro beam. XRF analysis is performed at the scanned points, leading to 2D elemental mapping. One of the drawbacks of this technique is…
DEVELOPMENT OF A PALM-SIZE ELECTRON PROBE X-RAY ANALYZERS. Imashuku, A. Imanishi, J. Kawai…Energy of obtained continuous X-rays and lower limits of detection of transition metals (titanium, iron, and nickel) were evaluated. End point energy (Duane-Hunt limit) of obtained continuous X-rays was about 40 keV, but the palm-size EPMA can a…
ELECTROLYTIC PHASE EXTRACTION: AN OLD TECHNIQUE TO EVALUATE PRECIPITATES IN NITINOLR.G. Baggerly…The shape memory effect results from a reversible martensitic phase transformation. An increasing solubility range with temperature on the Ni rich side can produce a precipitation reaction resulting in a slight matrix composition adjustment with…
EXPERIMENT VERIFICATION FOR THE DEPENDENCE OF THE X-RAY DIFFRACTION LINE PROFILEWITH THE ABSORPTION OF SAMPLEK. Liu, H. Chen…It was supposed that the line profile is broadened by the size of the crystalline, and also broadened by instrument. We proposed recently, (Kejia Liu et al, Adv. in X-ray analysis, 54, 17(2010) that there is still another effect which broadenin…
FAST ELEMENTAL MAPPING WITH MICRO-XRFM. Haschke, U. Rossek, R. Tagle, U. Waldschläger…New components like X-ray tubes with high brilliance, optics with better transmission efficiency and detectors with high count rate capability offer possibilities for improvement in the analytical performance of these instruments. This paper dis…
FEASIBILITY OF SUB-MICRON XRF COMBINED TO SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPYM. Dehlinger, C. Fauquet, F. Jandard, A. Bjeoumikhov, A. Erko, I. Zizak, S. Ferrero, D. Pailharey, B. Dahmani, D. Tonneau…Corresponding author: Prof D. Tonneau tonneau@cinam.univ-mrs.fr ABSTRACT In-lab high lateral resolution XRF tools are needed, mainly in the field of microelectronics and solar cell industries, as non destructive in-depth chemical analysis equipm…
GUNSHOT RESIDUE INVESTIGATIONS USING TXRFAlexander Wastl, Bettina Bogner, Peter Kregsamer, Peter Wobrauschek, Christina Streli…It is very important for a police investigation at a crime scene to gain as much information from such residues as possible. Due to the minute amounts of residue available, total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) seems well suited fo…
IMPROVEMENT OF DETECTION LIMITS OF A PORTABLE TXRF BY REDUCING ELECTRICAL NOISES. Imashuku, D.P. Tee, Y. Nakae, J. Kawai, Osami Wada…Spectral background of the TXRF spectrometer decreased by keeping the detector away from analog-to-digital convertor, electromagnetic shielding of X-ray tube with ethylene propylene electric conductive rubber tape, and grounding all instrument c…
IN SEARCH FOR A REFINABLE MODEL OF NANOCRYSTALSB. Palosz…The appropriate technique for structural analysis of nanocrystals is powder diffraction. Parameters that are derived from routine diffraction studies (crystal phase, lattice parameters, size, strain, etc.) do not necessarily contain any informat…
MICROSTRUCTURE OF THE PLASTIC BONDED EXPLOSIVE KS32M. Herrmann, P.B. Kempa, U. Förter-Barth, W. Arnold…Different non-destructive diffraction techniques such as rocking curve imaging were applied in order to characterize the microstructure and ingredients of PBX KS32, including its behavior in shock-loading tests. The investigations revealed a sig…
MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF MICRO-XRF SPECTRAL IMAGESM.A. Rodriguez, P.G. Kotula, J.J.M. Griego, J.E. Heath, S.J. Bauer, D.E. Wesolowski…The separation of components into individual histograms enables separation of overlapping peaks, which is useful in qualitatively determining the presence of chemical species that have overlapping emission lines, and holds potential for quantita…
ON THE USE OF MONTE CARLO BASED METHODS TO EDXRF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSISkozul…An elemental stratified sampling variance reduction technique has been implemented in the CEARXRF code (version 5). In this case it refers to using the same number of histories for each element X-ray spectrum so that the same statistics are appr…
QUANTITATIVE XRD BULK AND CLAY MINERALOGICAL DETERMINATION OF PALEOSOL SECTION OF UNAYZAH AND BASAL KHUFF CLASTICS IN SAUDI ARABIAS. Shen, S.R. Zaidi, B.A. Mutairi, A.A. Shehry, S.A. Hamoud, F.S. Khaldi, F.A. Edhaim, H. Sitepu…Quantitative XRD bulk mineralogical determination was achieved using Rietveld refinement method whereas Quantitative XRD clay mineralogical determination of clay-size fraction was obtained using RIR method. The XRD results indicate that the samp…
RIETVELD QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPER DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELJ.L. Garin, R.L. Mannheim…The thermal processing of the samples proceeded at temperatures in the range from 1073 K to 1223 K for periods of time from 1 to 96 h. This procedure permitted an accurate quantification of the microstructural components such as austenite, ferri…
STEPS TOWARD ACCURATE LARGE AREA ANALYZES OF GENESIS SOLAR WIND SAMPLES: EVALUATION OF SURFACE CLEANING METHODS USING TOTAL REFLECTION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRYMartina Schmeling*1, Donald S. Burnett 2, Amy J.G. Jurewicz3, Igor V. Veryovkin4…The Genesis mission collected solar wind during a period of 854 days by embedding the charged particles into collectors made of various ultra clean materials such as silicon, sapphire and silicon-on-sapphire. The sample return capsule unexpected…
STRATEGY OF FUSION BEAD CORRECTION IN XRF ANALYSIS OF POWDERSH. Homma, H. Inoue, M. Feeney, L. Oelofse, Y. Kataoka…These calibrations include matrix effects, weighing inaccuracies, loss on ignition (LOI), gain on ignition (GOI), decomposition of oxidizing agent and evaporation of flux. The corrections for these common sources of error in the fusion method ar…
STRESSES IN YTTERBIUM SILICATE MULTILAYER ENVIRONMENTAL BARRIER COATINGSF. Stolzenburg, J. Almer, K.N. Lee, B.J. Harder, K.T. Faber…Harder Durability and Protective Coatings Branch, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44315 K.T. Faber Northwestern University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Evanston, IL 60208 The internal stresses of plasma-sprayed mul…
STRUCTURE DETERMINATION OF THE SILVER CARBOXYLATE DIMER [AG(O2C20H39)]2, SILVER ARACHIDATE, USING POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION METHODSP.W. Stephens, J.A. Kaduk, T.N. Blanton, D.R. Whitcomb, S.T. Misture, M. Rajeswaran…Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616, USA c Eastman Kodak Company, Research Laboratories, Rochester, NY 14650-2106, USA d Carestream Health, 1 Imation Way, Oakdale, MN 55128, USA e Alfred University, New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred, NY 14802, …
SURFACE RELAXATION IN NANO-DIAMONDS EXAMINEDWITH APPLICATION OF THE REAL AND RECIPROCAL SPACE METHODSS. Stelmakh, E. Grzanka, S. Gierlotka, B. Palosz…Both real (PDF) and reciprocal (Bragg) space analyses were employed to examine a tentative core-shell model of nanodiamond grains. Elaboration of diffraction data was based on the concept of the “apparent lattice parameters” (alp) calculated for…
SYNCHROTRON X-RAYMICROBEAM CHARACTERIZATION OF SMECTIC A LIQUID CRYSTALS UNDER ELECTRIC FIELDA. Iida, Y. Takanishi…The layer shrinkage due to the tilted smectic arrangement is mitigated by local layer deformation. This paper presents detailed measurements of the local layer spacing under the electroclinic effect of the chiral SmA phase in a surface-stabilize…
THE POSSIBILITY OF USING HANDHELD XRF IN CEMENT APPLICATIONSkozul…Results are discussed for measurements of powders, pressed pellets, and unprepared rock samples. Variations in calibration assumptions are also discussed, which allow better tailoring of a calibration to measurement of different matrices. INTROD…
UNDERSTANDING STRESS GRADIENTS IN MICROELECTRONIC METALLIZATIONC.E. Murray, E.T. Ryan, P.R. Besser, C. Witt, J.L. Jordan-Sweet, M.F. Toney…Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY. 5Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Park, CA ABSTRACT The manufacture of ultra-large scale integration technology requires many thermal cycles that can impose significant strain within…
USE OF MONTE CARLO SIMULATION METHODS TO IMPROVE X-RAY DETECTOR RESPONSE FUNCTIONkozul…A semi-empirical detector response function using Gaussian peak models and exponential tails was used to characterize the detector response functions. And the use of Monte Carlo method to simulate the detector response has been developed to pred…
USE OF THE RIETVELD METHOD FOR DESCRIBING STRUCTURE AND TEXTURE IN XRD DATA OF DOLOMITE [CAMG(CO3)2] AND HYDROMAGNESITE [MG5(CO3)4(OH)2(H2O)4] POWDERSH. Sitepu…The results showed that the structural parameters along with the bond lengths agree reasonably well with the single-crystal XRD results. Also, the Rietveld refinement provided reasonable fits for the uniaxially-pressed dolomite and hydromagnesit…
USING IN-SITU TECHNIQUES TO PROBE HIGH TEMPERATURE REACTIONS: THERMOCHEMICAL CYCLES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC FUELS FROM CO2 ANDWATERE.N. Coker, M.A. Rodriguez, A. Ambrosini, J.E. Miller, E.B. Stechel…Such cycles utilize solar-thermal energy to reduce the metal oxide, which is then re-oxidized by H2O or CO2, producing H2 or CO, respectively. Mixing ferrites with zirconia or yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) greatly improves their cyclability. …
X-RAY DIFFRACTION CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW TERNARY YTTRIUM.RARE EARTH OXIDES FORMED BY THE SOL.GEL TECHNIQUEG. Rafailov, Z. Porat, I. Dahan, R. Zach, G. Kimmel, D. Mogilyansky, K. Rechav, J. Zabicky…These were divided into two groups, each composed of the same elements but at different stoichiometric ratios; the first one included Y2EuErO6, YEu2ErO6, and YEuEr2O6, and the second included Y2EuHoO6, YEu2HoO6 and YEuHo2O6. The compounds were s…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMER INTERCALATED GRAPHITE OXIDET.N. Blanton, D. Majumdar…The oxidation of graphite results in the formation of epoxide groups as well as C-OH and COOH groups. It is the presence of some of these moieties that allows GO to be dispersed in water, allowing for its use in waterborne formulations. Although…
X-RAY MEASUREMENTS OF NANOMETER THICK TAXO1-X AND HFXO1-X FILMS ON SILICON SUBSTRATES FOR THICKNESS AND COMPOSITION DETERMINATIONF.J. Cadieu, I. Vander, Y. Rong, R.W. Zuneska…Sponsored by the International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD). This document is provided by ICDD in cooperation with the authors and presenters of the DXC for the express purpose of educating the scientific community. All copyrights for the …


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2010 – VOL54

A MULTIDIMENSIONAL INVESTIGATION USING X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHYH. Pöllmann, R. Meier, G. Blaj, U. Riedl…INTRODUCTION Classical X-ray investigations of mortar and concrete bars in laboratory can show phases, phase distributions and even quantification of occurring phases. The new technique now provides the possibility of evaluation of microstructur…
A NOVEL SAMPLE PRESSING TECHNIQUE TO REDUCE PREFERRED ORIENTATION USING THE BACK-PRESSED PRESENTATION METHODCopyright ©JCPDS-International Centre for Diffraction Data 2011 ISSN 1097-0002…In Bragg-Brentano geometry the avoidance of preferred orientation, sample displacement and surface roughness would be goals of any sample presentation technique. A mixture of 90 wt% gypsum and 10 wt% corundum was prepared by miconising in a McCr…
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BAYESIAN METHODS FOR OBTAINING XRF NET INTENSITIESW.T. Elam, B. Scruggs, F. Eggert, J. Nicolosi…The method has several advantages, among them that the total counts are preserved and that the a priori information is incorporated in a natural manner. These make it, for example, less sensitive to errors in the peak position, widths, and alpha…
ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES FOR XAFS DATA ANALYSIS USING FEFF AND MATHEMATICA 7Copyright ©JCPDS-International Centre for Diffraction Data 2011 ISSN 1097-0002…Its primary use has been in supporting a path by path analysis of experimental data using auxiliary programs such as IFEFFIT, Artemis, SixPack, etc. In this paper several alternative strategies for XAFS analysis that combine FEFF and Mathematica…
ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENT WITH X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRYJ. Boman, J.B.C. Pettersson, M. Gatari, A. Wagner, P. Molnar…Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya 3Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital & University of Gothenburg, Bo…
BINDING OF MN-DEOXYRIBONUCLEOSIDE TRIPHOSPHATES TO THE ACTIVE SITE OF THE DNA POLYMERASE OF BACTERIOPHAGE T7B. Akabayov, C.C. Richardson…Mg2+, as an example, mediates binding of deoxyribonucleoside 5′-triphosphates followed by their hydrolysis in the active site of DNA polymerase. It is difficult to study the binding of Mg2+ to an active site because: 1) Mg2+ is spectroscopically…
CALCULATED POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION LINE PROFILES VIA ABSORPTIONK. Liu, H. Chen…The results showed that the line profile function depends on the absorption coefficient of the sample. The observed aluminum PXRD patterns are in excellent agreement with the calculated line profile functions derived from absorption. This work a…
COMPOSITION AND LAYER THICKNESS OF COPPER-INDIUMGALLIUM- SELENIUM AND MOLYBDENUM LAYERS ON GLASS BY XRAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPYL.L. Brehm, T.T. Hasan, D.A. Libby, T.R. Bryden…One such application is the evaluation of copper-indium-gallium-selenium (CIGS) on molybdenum (Mo) coated glass substrates to support solar cell research and development efforts. Several analytical technologies are available for elemental analys…
DEVELOPMENT OF AN IN SITU X-RAY DIFFRACTION SYSTEM FOR HYDROTHERMAL REACTIONS AND ITS APPLICATION TO AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE FORMATIONJ. Kikuma, M. Tsunashima, T. Ishikawa, S. Matsuno, A. Ogawa, K. Matsui…The system includes a novel autoclave cell for transmission XRD with thin beryllium windows, a two-dimensional photon-counting pixel array detector, and uses high energy X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source. The temperature and pressure in…
ENHANCEMENT OF XRF INTENSITY BY USING AU COATED GLASS-CAPILLARYT. Nakazawa, K. Nakano, M. Yoshida, K. Tsuji…Au was electroplated on an inner wall of the glass-capillary with a thickness of 100 nm. The Au coated glass-capillary was attached to a micro focus x-ray tube. The XRF intensity from the pure metal samples was measured by a silicon drift x-ray …
EVOLUTION OF TEXTURE AND DISLOCATION DISTRIBUTIONS IN HIGH-DUCTILE AUSTENITIC STEEL DURING DEFORMATIONS. Sato, T. Yoshimura, N. Yamada, K. Wagatsuma, S. Suzuki…K. ABSTRACT Fe-Mn-C austenitic steels exhibit outstanding high-ductile deformation in their plastic regions along with significant microstructural evolution. In this study, to characterize the microstructural evolution during deformation of thes…
GLANCING INCIDENCE XRF FOR THE ANALYSIS OF EARLY CHINESE BRONZE MIRRORSR.W. Zuneska, Y. Rong, I. Vander, F.J. Cadieu…The mirrors were archived to be from either 200 BCE-200 CE and from approximately the 800 CE period. Glancing incidence X-Ray excitation proofed highly useful for obtaining the elemental composition from the fluorescence measure. Measure of the …
GLANCING XRD AND XRF FOR THE STUDY OF TEXTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SMCO BASED FILMS SPUTTERED ONTO SILICON SUBSTRATESF.J. Cadieu, I. Vander, Y. Rong, R.W. Zuneska…The films formed a disordered TbCu7-type structure for a range of Sm concentrations with an accompanying variation in the crystallite lattice parameters. Since in a film the θ positions of the X-ray diffraction lines stayed constant, it is reas…
GLOBAL CEMENT AND RAW MATERIALS FUSION/XRF ANALYTICAL SOLUTION: PART 2M. Bouchard, J. Anzelmo, S. Rivard, A. Seyfarth, L. Arias, K. Behrens, S. Durali-Müller…The results of two well known cement chemical analysis Standard Methods were also presented. These results proved that this robust analytical method is able to qualify by the ASTM C 114 [2] and ISO/DIS 29581-2 [3] norms. This robust analytical m…
IMPROVED MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION METHODS THROUGH TARGETED DATA MININGT.G. Fawcett, C.E. Crowder, S.N. Kabekkodu, J.A. Kaduk…The data mining attempts to intelligently mimic the thought process of experts in materials and analytical methods to combine several “data clues” for a successful identification process. The clues can come from the diffraction experiment, but a…
IN SITU HIGH-TEMPERATURE X-RAY DIFFRACTION CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER SULFIDE, AG2ST. Blanton, S. Misture, N. Dontula, S. Zdzieszynski…The mineral acanthite is a monoclinic crystalline form of Ag2S that is stable to 176 ºC. Upon heating above 176 ºC, there is a phase conversion to a body- centered cubic (BCC) form referred to as argentite. Further heating above 586 ºC results i…
IN SITU MEASUREMENTS REVEAL PHASE AND TEXTURE EVOLUTION IN SOLUTION DEPOSITED PZT THIN FILMSK. Nittala, G.L. Brennecka, D.S. Robinson, J.L. Jones…The transient/intermediate phases present in the thin film during perovskite phase nucleation have been suggested to cause this variation in texture with heating rate. To understand the interrelationship between the transient/intermediate phases…
IN SITU TIME-RESOLVED X-RAY DIFFRACTION OF TOBERMORITE FORMATION PROCESS UNDER HYDROTHERMAL CONDITION: INFLUENCE OF REACTIVE AL COMPOUNDK. Matsui, A. Ogawa, J. Kikuma, M. Tsunashima, T. Ishikawa, S. Matsuno…High-energy X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source in combination with a newly developed autoclave cell and a photon-counting pixel array detector were used. XRD measurements were conducted in a temperature range of 100–190 °C throughout 12 …
IN-SITU OBSERVATION OF ERD2 FORMATION DURING D2 LOADING VIA NEUTRON DIFFRACTIONM.A. Rodriguez, C.S. Snow, R.R. Wixom, A. Llobet, J.F. Browning…This experiment tracked the conversion of Er metal to the α erbium deuteride (solid-solution) phase and then on to the β (fluorite) phase. Complete conversion to ErD2.0 was accomplished at 10 Torr D2 pressure with deuterium fully occupying the t…
INVESTIGATION OF MICROSTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN IMPACTED POLYUREA COATINGS USING SMALL ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING (SAXS)E. Balizer, J. Fedderly, G. Lee, W. Mock, Jr., S. Bartyczak…The polyurea layer of the post mortem bilayers was characterized on a molecular level by Small Angle Synchrotron X-ray Scattering (SAXS) at the Avdanced Photon Source at Argonne National Lab. Analysis revealed that hard domains of the polyureas …
MACROSCOPIC X-RAY FLUORESCENCE CAPABILITY FOR LARGESCALE ELEMENTAL MAPPINGH.M. Volz, G.J. Havrilla, R.M. Aikin, Jr., V.M. Montoya…These elemental differences across a part have a huge impact on materials properties so that identifying variations will help industry immensely with process optimization and quality control. Therefore, a nondestructive method of obtaining spati…
MULTIALIQUOT CELL APPROACH FOR STRUCTURE DETERMINATION FROM POWDER DIFFRACTION OF HIGH SYMMETRY COMPOUNDSCopyright ©JCPDS-International Centre for Diffraction Data 2011 ISSN 1097-0002…Application of aliquot cells as building units for the larger cell of high symmetry is expected to facilitate the structure solution with direct space methods, in order to decrease time for the model search in a large-scale unit cell. Indexing a…
NEAR-SURFACE IN-VITRO STUDIES OF PLASMA SPRAYED HYDROXYAPATITE COATINGST.P. Ntsoane, M. Topic, R. Bucher…Subsequent to spraying, the samples were incubated in simulated body fluid for periods varying from 1 and 56 days. Quantitative phase analysis, employing TOPAS software, showed an opposite trend in the two main phases in the coating viz. HAp and…
STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL 660B FOR X-RAY METROLOGYD.R. Black, D. Windover, A. Henins, J. Filliben, J.P. Cline…This report describes SRM 660b, the third generation of this powder diffraction SRM used primarily for determination of the Instrument Profile Function (IPF). It is certified with respect to lattice parameter. It consists of approximately 6 g La…
STRAIN-INDUCED TEXTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE MAGNESIUM ALLOY AZ31S. Huang, D. Li, Y. Peng, J. Allison…Understanding the formability of lightweight alloys is one key to their successful introduction in vehicles. We present results of X-Ray diffraction and electron back-scatter diffraction texture measurements in as-cast and uniaxially compressed …
STRUCTURAL REFINEMENT OF BAXSR1-XSO4 USING X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTION DATAH. Sitepu, S.R. Zaidi…X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) data of the fused barium-strontium sulfate powders were measured using a powder diffractometer with a copper X-ray tube. The XRD data were refined using Rietveld analysis with generalized spherical harmonic descrip…
THE STRUCTURE OF MARIALITE (ME6) AND MEIONITE (ME93) IN SPACE GROUPS P42/N AND I4/M, AND THE ABSENCE OF PHASE TRANSITIONS IN THE SCAPOLITE SERIESS.M. Antao, I. Hassan…Vesuvius, Italy was obtained using synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data and Rietveld structure refinements. Their structure was refined in space groups I4/m and P42/n, and similar results were obtained. The Me6 samp…
TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS USING EDXRF WITH POLARIZED OPTICST. Moriyama, S. Ikeda, M. Doi, S. Fess…Accurate analysis down to ppm level can be achieved even in complex sample composition with the quantification software. The scattering FP method corrects for non-measuring components in samples such as coal fly ash, soils and biological samples…
ULTRATHIN LAYER DEPOSITIONS . A NEW TYPE OF REFERENCE SAMPLES FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE XRF ANALYSISM. Kraemer, R. Dietsch, Th. Holz, D. Weißbach, G. Falkenberg, R. Simon, U. Fittschen, T. Krugmann, M. Kolbe, M. Müller, B. Beckhoff…D-22603 Hamburg, Germany; 3) Institute for Synchrotron Radiation, FZ Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein, Germany; 4) Institute for Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg, G…
WASTE REDUCTION AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS IN THE ANALYSIS OF PLUTONIUM BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE: RESULTS FROM MULTIPLE DATA SETSC.G. Worley, C.B. Soderberg, L.E. Townsend…These changes included reducing sample sizes, reducing ion exchange process volumes, using cheaper reagent grade acids, eliminating the use of HF acid, and using more robust containment film for sample analysis. Relative precision and accuracy a…
XAFS STUDIES OF NI, TA AND NB CHLORIDES IN THE IONIC LIQUID 1-ETHYL-3- METHYL IMIDAZOLIUM CHLORIDE / ALUMINUM CHLORIDEW.E. O’Grady, D.F. Roeper, K.I. Pandya, G.T. Cheek…In order to understand the interactions of these metal ions with ionic liquids, we have investigated their structures in situ with X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). The ionic liquid used in this study is 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (…
XRD ANISOTROPIC BROADENING OF NANO-CRYSTALLITESY. Wang, S.L.I. Chan, R. Amal, Y.R. Shen, K. Kiatkittipong…In such a case, the crystallite size must be described by multi-dimensional lengths, possible with a polar orientation. Experiments on β-Ni(OH)2, β-TiO2 and anatase were carried. Results show that the model can explain the characteristics of nan…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2009 – VOL53

ABSOLUTE THICKNESS DETERMINATION OF SMCO FILMS ON SILICON SUBSTRATES UTILIZING X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND THEIR COMPOSITION MEASUREMENTS BY EXRFI. Vander, R.W. Zuneska, F.J. Cadieu…X-Ray diffraction of Cu Kα radiation has been used to measure the intensity of the (400) reflection from bare silicon substrates and as attenuated by sputter coated Co and SmCo based films on Si substrates. A 4-axis research diffractometer allow…
APPLICATION OF A PORTABLE TXRF SPECTROMETER TO DETERMINE TRACE AMOUNTS OF TOXIC ELEMENTSS. Kunimura, J. Kawai…Although non-monochromatic X-rays from a 5 W X-ray tube (Tube voltage: 25 kV) are used, the trace amounts of these elements are detected. This portable spectrometer is applied to analysis of river water, a leaching solution of a toy, and a lipst…
APPLICATION OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION FOR RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS ON CANADIAN NAVAL PLATFORMSS.P. Farrell, L.W. MacGregor…This is a significant concern for the Canadian Navy, where the superposition of applied stresses on residual stresses may adversely affect the performance, safe operational envelope and service life of naval structures. The ability to elucidate …
BIFOCAL MINIATURE TOROIDAL SHAPED X-RAY MIRRORSS. Cornaby, D.-M. Smilgies, D.H. Bilderback…At CHESS we traditionally use glass single-bounce monocapillary optics for a wide range of x-ray experiments to get a fine x-ray beam of 5 to 20 μm. This miniture toroidal mirror was prepared by designing and fabricating an x-ray focusing capil…
BRIDGING THE PRICE/PERFORMANCE GAP BETWEEN SILICON DRIFT AND SILICON PIN DIODE DETECTORSD. Hullinger, K. Decker, J. Smith, C. Carter…Increasing the thickness of PIN diodes (and, correspondingly, the thickness of the depletion region within the diode) significantly reduces the diode capacitance and results in improved performance. For example, the new Moxtek XPIN-6 detector (w…
CALCULATION METHODS OF X-RAY SPECTRA: A COMPARATIVE STUDYB. Chyba, M. Mantler, H. Ebel, R. Svagera…This paper discusses two calculation methods for tube spectra: an analytical program based on algorithms by H. Ebel and the MCNP software package based on Monte-Carlo code. The calculated data were also compared to measured spectra generated on …
CHARACTERIZATION OF AGING BEHAVIOR OF PRECIPITATES AND DISLOCATIONS IN COPPER-BASED ALLOYSS. Sato, Y. Takahashi, K. Wagatsuma, S. Suzuki…A small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method was used for characterizing the growth behavior of the precipitates with aging. The results showed that the precipitates grew gradually to a few nanometers in radius in the alloy aged under the condit…
COMBINED MULTIPLE-EXCITATION FP METHOD FOR MICRO-XRF ANALYSIS OF DIFFICULT SAMPLESW.T. Elam, B. Scruggs, J. Nicolosi…A primary beam filter is commonly used to eliminate diffractive artifacts as well as tube characteristic lines, but this dramatically reduces the sensitivity to lighter elements. One way around this is to collect a spectrum with unfiltered excit…
DUAL DETECTION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE CRYOTOMOGRAPHY AND -MAPPING ON THE MODEL ORGANISM DAPHNIA MAGNAB. De Samber, S.Vanblaere, R. Evens, K. De Schamphelaere, G. Wellenreuther, F. Ridouitt, G. Silversmit, T. Schoonjans, B. Vekemans, B. Masschaele, L. Van Hoorebeke, K. Rickers, G. Falkenberg, I. Szaloki, C. Janssen, L. Vincze…Szaloki, 2C. Janssen and 1L. Vincze 1X-ray Microspectroscopy andmaging (XMI), Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium 2Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 G…
ENERGY-DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF MONOAND POLYCRYSTALS OF SELENIDE SPINELS BY FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETER METHODR. Sitko, B. Zawisza, E. Malicka…Zn+2, V+3, Ga+3) by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) is presented. The monocrystals of spinels (sizes from ca. 1 to 5 mm) were analyzed without any treatment. The polycrystals were powdered and pressed into pellets of 10…
EXPERIMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR XRFANALYSIS OF SOILSY. Imanishi, A. Bando, S. Komatani, S.-I. Wada, K. Tsuji…We investigated the influence of the thickness of soil layer, the grain size of soils, and the water content in soils on XRF intensity. Since high-energy XRF such as Cd Kα was detected in deep inside of soils, a thickness of 10 mm was recommende…
FUSION MONITORS FOR X-RAY FLUORESCENCE X ANALYSISD. Levesque, M. Bouchard, L. Bérubé…However, drift and bias contributions from the fusion technique, burner position, fluxer to fluxer, mould effects and other contributors were difficult to assess and quantify. The Fusion MonitorsTM from Claisse are introduced as a novel quality …
GLOBAL CEMENT AND RAW MATERIALS FUSION/XRF ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONM. Bouchard, J. Anzelmo, S. Rivard, A. Seyfarth, L. Arias, K. Behrens, S. Durali-Müller…This method was used to prepare all cements, all process materials, and a very large range of raw materials. The choice of all fusion parameters and all XRF analysis conditions, including calibration corrections, are shown. Two sets of reference…
HUMAN EXPOSURE TO LEAD AND NEW EVIDENCE OF ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ANALYTICAL MEASUREMENTSP.J. Parsons, K.G. McIntosh…The history of lead poisoning prevention has been defined to some extent by the quality of the analytical methods available for lead measurements, whether in environmental samples or biological tissues and fluids. The quality of blood lead metho…
IN-SITU ANALYSIS OF LIFEPO4 BATTERIES: SIGNAL EXTRACTION BY MULTIVARIATE ANALYSISM.A. Rodriguez, M.H. Van Benthem, D. Ingersoll, S.C. Vogel, H.M. Reiche…Multivariate analysis was successfully applied to the neutron diffraction dataset facilitating in the determination of Li bearing phases participating in the electrochemical reaction in both the anode and cathode as a function of state-of-charge…
INTERNAL STRESSES AND TEXTURE OF NANO-STRUCTURED ALUMINA SCALES GROWING ON FE3AL POLYCRYSTALSP. Brito, H. Pinto, M. Klaus, C. Genzel, A. Pyzalla…Berlin, Germany ABSTRACT The evolution of internal stresses in oxide scales growing on an Fe3Al polycrystal in atmospheric air at 700°C was determined using in-situ energy-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Texture analyses were performe
LABORATORY-BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF HETEROEPITAXIAL STRUCTURES: ADVANCED EXPERIMENTS NOT NEEDING SYNCHROTRON RADIATIONP. Zaumseil, A. Giussani, T. Schroeder…This is demonstrated with epi-Germanium on Pr2O3 as buffer material. Pole figure measurements prove that epi-Ge layers grow nearly completely single crystalline with exactly the same in-plane orientation (type A) as the Si(111) substrate, while …
LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN MICRO AND NANO TOMOGRAPHY AT PETRA IIIA. Haibel, F. Beckmann, T. Dose, J. Herzen, M. Oggureck, M. Müller, A. Schreyer…Novel applications of tomographic techniques allow for high speed in- situ measurements as well as the highest spatial and density resolutions. Additionally, the highly coherent beam enables the application of phase contrast methods in an except…
MINIATURE X-RAY SOURCES AND THE EFFECTS OF SPOT SIZE ON SYSTEM PERFORMANCED. Caruso, M. Dinsmore, S. Cornaby…The result is an x-ray spot that is not well described by a traditional Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) type of measurement due to the irregular nature of the spots. This paper presents an alternate method called an intensity integral curve that …
MOLYBDENUM CONCENTRATES – COMBINING DEVELOPMENT OF AN XRF BORATE FUSION METHOD WITH CERTIFICATION OF STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALSJ.R. Sieber, D.I. Lincoln…A new borate fusion approach for molybdenum concentrates has been developed by NIST for use in value assignments of two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs®). The new borate fusion method is …
MONTE-CARLO SIMULATIONS FOR THE EVALUATION OF VARIOUS INFLUENCE FACTORS ON PROJECTIONS IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHYB. Chyba, M. Mantler, M. Reiter…The simulations were carried out by using custom software running on up to 50 nodes of a computer cluster. Comparative calculations were also made by using the software package MCNP (Booth et al., 2003). Tube spectra were calculated with algorit…
NANOSCALE STRAIN CHARACTERIZATION IN MICROELECTRONIC MATERIALS USING X-RAY DIFFRACTIONC.E. Murray, A.J. Ying, S.M. Polvino, I.C. Noyan, Z. Cai…An understanding of the mechanical response of the Si channel regions and their environment is key to the prediction and design of device operation. Because of the complexity of the composite geometries associated with microelectronic circuitry,…
OBSERVATIONS OF SHOCKED METAL SURFACES WITH SINGLE-PULSE X-RAY DIFFRACTIOND.V. Morgan, M. Grover, D. Macy, M. Madlener, G. Stevens, W.D. Turley…Box 5800, M/S 1193, Albuquerque, NM 87185 ABSTRACT A single-pulse X-ray diffraction (XRD) diagnostic has been developed for the investigation of shocked material properties on a very short time scale. The diagnostic, which consists of a 37-stage…
OPTIMIZING XRF CALIBRATION PROTOCOLS FOR ELEMENTAL QUANTIFICATION OF MINERAL SOLIDS FROM ATHABASCA OIL SANDSB. Patarachao, P.H.J. Mercier, J. Kung, J.R. Woods, L.S. Kotlyar, B.D. Sparks, T. McCracken…Bede Technical Associates, 614 Laverendrye Drive, Ottawa, ON, K1J 7C4 ABSTRACT As world reserves of conventional oil keep decreasing, there is greater incentive to further develop the Athabasca oil sands of Alberta (Canada). Oil sands being comp…
PREDICTION AND XRD MEASURING OF RESIDUAL STRESS IN MACHINED WELDED PARTSG. Rafailov, J. Sariel, I. Dahan, R. Reuven, M. Szanto…The measurements were done using both X-Ray diffraction and Hole-Drilling (HD) methods. A numerical simulation of the distribution of residual stress was applied in order to predict the behavior of the stress. The distributions obtained by X-Ray…
PRINCIPLES OF MICROSTRESS EQUILIBRIUM IN TEXTURED METAL MATERIALSY. Perlovich, M. Isaenkova, V. Fesenko…The data treatment involves recalculation of the Bragg angle 2φψ into the relative deviation of the interplanar spacing from the weighted average level Δd/dav. Depending on the texture character, different modes of microstress equilibrium take …
STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL 640D FOR X-RAY METROLOGYD.R. Black, D. Windover, A. Henins, D. Gil, J. Filliben, J.P. Cline…This report describes SRM 640d, the fifth generation of this powder diffraction SRM which is certified with respect to lattice parameter. It consists of approximately 7.5 g silicon powder specifically prepared to produce strain-free particles in…
TESTS OF MICROSTRUCTURE RECONSTRUCTION BY FORWARD MODELING OF HEDM DATAC.M. Hefferan, S.F. Li, J. Lind, R.M. Suter…Comparison between the simulated and reconstructed microstructures is examined with consideration to both crystallographic orientation and spatial geometric accuracy. To couple the simulations with the evolving experimental setup at the Advanced…
THE EFFECT OF THE SIGNAL PROCESSOR ON THE LINE SHAPET. Papp, J.A. Maxwell…Minimizing and accounting for these effects are important in reducing the errors in the deconvolution of spectra into component element contributions. This along with the associated rejected event spectrum provides the basis for a more accurate …
THIN FILM XRD TOTAL PATTERN FITTING APPLIED TO STUDY OF EVOLUTION OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF TIO2 FILMSR. Kužel, Z. Matĕj, L. Nichtová…It is an extension of the FOX program for structure determination from powder diffraction and it includes in particular the effects and corrections necessary for thin film analysis when parallel beam geometry and asymmetric detector scan at smal…
TOWARDS SUB-100 NM X-RAY MICROSCOPY FOR TOMOGRAPHIC APPLICATIONSP. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, B. Pauwels…Further simulation studies have shown that optimization of the detector response curve and switching from a reflective X- ray target to a transmission target should allow us to reach sub-100 nm resolutions. INTRODUCTION A common way to achieve a…
WASTE REDUCTION AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS IN THE ANALYSIS OF PLUTONIUM BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCEC.G. Worley, C.B. Soderberg, L.E. Townsend…These changes were made to minimize waste and improve process safety and efficiency. Sample sizes were reduced, cheaper sample preparation acids were used, and safety improvements were implemented. Using this modified process, results from analy…
X-RAY AND RAMAN SPECTRA STUDIES ON THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE MATERIALS – TRIS(HYDROXYMETHYL)AMINOMETHANEW.-M. Chien, V. Krishna Kamisetty, J.C. Fallas, D. Chandra, E.D. Emmons, A.M. Covington, R.S. Chellappa, R.J. Hemley, S.A. Gramsch, S. Clark…Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, AMSRD-ECB-RT-DL/BLDG E5560, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424 3 Department of Physics /MS220, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV 89557 4 Carnegie/DOE Alliance Center, Geophysi…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION IMAGING OF DISLOCATION GENERATION RELATED TO MICROCRACKS IN SI-WAFERSJ. Wittge, A. Danilewsky, D. Allen, P. McNally, Z.J. Li, T. Baumbach, E. Gorostegui–Colinas, J. Garagorri, M.R. Elizalde, D. Jacques, M.C.Fossati, D.K. Bowen, B.K.Tanner…The nucleation of dislocations at indents in silicon following rapid thermal annealing (RTA) has been examined by X-ray diffraction imaging (topography). For indentation loads below 200mN, no slip bands were generated from the indent sites follo…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2008 – VOL52

A NEW PROCEDURE FOR THE EVALUATION OF RESIDUAL STRESSES BY THE HOLE DRILLING METHOD BASED ON NEWTON-RAPHSON TECHNIQUEG. Petrucci, M. Scafidi…In the presence of non-uniform residual stresses, the stress field can be determined from the measured relaxed strains using several methods, but the most used is the so called integral method. This method is characterized by some simplification…
A PORTABLE NON-INVASIVE XRD-XRF INSTRUMENT FOR THE STUDY OF ART OBJECTSP. Sarrazin, G. Chiari, M. Gailhanou…Tech. de St Jerome 13397 Marseille, France ABSTRACT A non-invasive XRD/XRF instrument for study of works of art has been developed jointly by the Getty Conservation Institute and inXitu Inc. (California). Many aspects of the instrument are based…
A STUDY OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN VACUUM PLASMA SPRAYED TUNGSTEN COATINGST.-S. Jun, S.Y. Zhang, G. Appleby-Thomas, P.S. Grant, A.M. Korsunsky…Thick tungsten (W) coatings are potential plasma facing materials in fusion reactors, but the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between W and Cu or steel substrates leads to large thermally induced stresses and premature failure. W…
AN INNOVATIVE EDXRD VERIFICATION PROBEC.M. Dozier, N. Anibou…Materials may be in solid or powder form, and the technique is non-destructive. Unlike Angular X-ray Diffraction (AXRD), a “white” x-ray beam between 20 and 80 keV is used. This energetic beam can penetrate through relatively thick materials, di…
ANALYSIS OF STRAIN-INDUCED PEAK BROADENING IN TITANIUM ALLOYSF. Hofmann, S. Y. Zhang, T. S. Jun, A. M. Korsunsky…Diffraction peak position is related to average elastic strain within the scattering grains, whilst diffraction peak shape is related to crystallite size and so-called root mean square (RMS) – strain, which refers to the spread of lattice parame…
APPLICATION OF 2-DIMENSIONAL XRD FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF SELF-LEVELING COMPOUNDS (SLC)S. Seifert, J. Neubauer, F. Goetz-Neunhoeffer, H. Motzet…A calcium aluminate cement based SLC was prepared on two different substrates (water absorbent and non-water absorbent) to determine the vertical distribu- tion of the crystalline phases. The application of the GADDS enables the detection of the…
APPLICATION OF ENERGY-DISPERSIVE DIFFRACTION TO THE ANALYSIS OF HIGHLY INHOMOGENEOUS RESIDUAL STRESS FIELDS IN THIN FILM STRUCTURESM. Klaus, W. Reimers, Ch. Genzel…By the example of an Al2O3/TiCN on WC coating system we have studied the feasibility for using the coating reflections being stored in the ED diffraction patterns together with the substrate diffraction lines to analyze the residual stress state…
ASSESSING THE QUALITY OF X-RAY OPTIC SURFACES OF SI CRYSTALS CUT BY DIAMOND-WIRE AND ROTATING-BLADE SAWING TECHNIQUESM. Wieczorek, X. Huang, J. Maj, R. Conley, J. Qian, A. Macrander, C. Christensen, J. Hodsden, R. Khachatryan…As a first step toward initializing a systematic study on this topic, we evaluate in this paper the surface quality of two Si (111) wafers cut by a diamond-wire saw and a rotating-blade saw, respectively. We concentrate on revealing lattice stra…
BENEFITS OF IMPROVED RESOLUTION FOR EDXRFR. Redus, T. Pantazis, J. Pantazis, A. Huber, B. Cross…However, there are trade-offs between the highest energy resolution and the highest count rates, and there are practical difficulties in achieving the very best energy resolution. Energy resolution differentiates systems but the benefits of impr…
CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDUAL STRESS PROFILES IN HARD TURNED VS. GROUND SURFACES WITH AND WITHOUTA WHITE LAYERA.W. Warren, Y.B. Guo…This study aims to clarify the pressing issues for five surface types: hard turned fresh, hard turned with a white layer, ground fresh, ground with a white layer, and as-heat-treated. The key findings are: (i) hard turned fresh surfaces produce …
CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW BONE RECONSTRUCTED AT THE INTERFACES WITH IMPLANTA. Benmarouane, T. Buslaps, T. Hansen, V. Honkimaki, A. Lodini…Grenoble Cedex 9, France ABSTRACT The use of the implants has become current since 1930. With the improvement of technology, metals have been used in the medical field. As a long-term establishment is a meter of the therapeutic success, it is ne…
COMPLEMENTARITY OF EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING RESIDUAL STRESS STATESG. Roy…There are destructive and non-destructive methods to measure strain tensor components and convert them into stress tensor components by a variety of techniques derived from constitutive (material) equations. In this study, four methods for deter…
DETERMINATION OF ACTIVATION ENERGY OF INTERMIXING IN TEXTURED METAL-METAL MULTILAYER FILMS VIA TWO-DIMENSIONAL X-RAY DIFFRACTIONM.A. Rodriguez, D.P. Adams, R.G. Tissot…Kinetic data were collected utilizing an area detector so as to reduce intensity bias from changes in out-of-plane texture during the intermixing reaction. Activation energies for Al/Pt, Ni/Ti, and Co/Al metal-metal multilayer thin films have be…
DETERMINATION OF RESIDUALS STRESSES AROUND BLISTERS IN ZR-2.5%NB PRESSURE TUBESJ.R. Santisteban, A. Steuwer, G. Domizzi, M. Peel…Libertador 8250 Buenos Aires (1429) – ARGENTINA 4 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility 38042 Grenoble – FRANCE ABSTRACT We have used synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments to measure the strain field introduced by a hydride blister grown o…
DEVELOPMENT OF INDUCTION SURFACE HARDENING PROCESS FOR SMALL DIAMETER CARBON STEEL SPECIMENSD. Suzuki, K. Yatsushiro, S. Shimizu Y. Sugita M. Saito K. Kubota…Marushin Heat Treatment. ABSTRACT In case of induction hardening, the highly frequency generator make a shallow hardened zone. Additionally, hardening for smaller diameter specimen is enabled. In this study, the induction surface hardening proce…
DUAL-AXIS HOLE-DRILLING ESPI RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENTSG.S. Schajer, M. Steinzig…Experimental tests were done on a stressed specimen, and the results supported theoretical expectations. INTRODUCTION Residual stresses play an important role in the strength and dimensional stability of engineering components. The stresses can …
EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES ON FATIGUE STRENGTH OF SEVERELY SURFACE DEFORMED STEELS BY SHOT PEENINGY. Akiniwa, H. Kimura, T. Sasaki…Medium carbon steel plates were heat treated in two different conditions. The Vickers hardness of material-A and B after heat treatment is 408 and 617 HV, respectively. The specimens were shot-peened with fine cast iron particles of the size of …
EFFECT OF THE HOLE-BOTTOM FILLET RADIUS ON THE RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS BY THE HOLE DRILLING METHODM. Scafidi, E. Valentini, B. Zuccarello…Calenzano, Fi – ITALIA; www.sintechnology.com ABSTRACT The hole drilling method is based on the measuring of the surface relaxed strains when a small hole is drilled on the examined component. From the relaxed strains, measured generally by usin…
EVALUATION OF SUBSTRURUCTURE PARAMETERS BY PEAK PROFILE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-RESOLUTION NEUTRON DIFFRACTION SPECTRAP. Lukas, P. Strunz, V. Davydov, R. Kuzel…However, neutron diffraction facilities of new generation frequently offer the instrumental resolution high enough to study efficiently the effects of broadening of neutron diffraction profiles. The present paper describes the procedure for a de…
EVIDENCE AND ANALYSIS OF THERMAL STATIC STRAIN AGING IN THE DEFORMED SURFACE ZONE OF FINISH-MACHINED HARDENED STEELJ. Gegner, L. Schlier, W. Nierlich…D-57068 Siegen, Germany ABSTRACT After heat treating, finish machining of the hardened steel represents the last manufacturing step of machine elements. The practically most important operation of grinding is applied to achieve edge zone compres…
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS AND NEUTRON DIFFRACTION EVALUATION OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN STELLITE COATING PRODUCED BY PTA PROCESSA. Nady, H. Bonnefoy, V. KloseK, M.H. Mathon, A. Lodini, A. Baczmanski…Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland ABSTRACT A grade 6 cobalt-based superalloy was coated on steel substrate by the Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) method. The macrostructure and microstructure of the interface and of the Co- based superalloy lay…
FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF RESIDUAL STRESS PROFILE PATTERNS IN HARD TURNINGY.B. Guo…However, the formation mechanism of the unique RS profile is not yet known. In this study, a novel hybrid finite element modeling approach based on thermal-mechanical coupling and internal state variable plasticity model has been developed to pr…
FLEXIBILITY AND HIGH THROUGHPUT: SUPPORTING SAXS USERS AT A JOINT INDUSTRIAL ACADEMIC BEAMLINES. Weigand, B. Stillwell, W.E. Guise, J.P.G. Quintana, D.T. Keane…This has resulted in a sector with support for a broad range of techniques and sample environments. Among the techniques supported at DND-CAT are small and wide angle scattering, reflectivity, spectroscopy, tomography, and powder diffraction. Th…
GRAIN GROWTH IN NANOCRYSTALLINE COPPER THIN FILMS, INVESTIGATED BY NON-AMBIENT X-RAY DIFFRACTION MEASUREMENTSY. Kuru, M. Wohlschlögel, U. Welzel, E.J. Mittemeijer…Before annealing, the thermoelastic behaviour was investigated excluding the occurrence of thermally activated relaxation processes occurring above ambient temperature by in-situ stress measurements below ambient temperature. On this basis, abov…
IMPROVING TRACE ELEMENT DETECTION IN EDXRF BY REDUCING PILEUP ARTIFACTSW.T. Elam, B. Scruggs, M. Solazzi, J. Nicolosi…These artifacts often appear as extra peaks in the spectrum and can mask (or be mistaken for) weak peaks of trace elements. In X-ray fluorescence (XRF) the background is very small compared to charged-particle excitation techniques. This makes i…
IN-SITU INVESTIGATION OF GRAIN ROTATIONS DURING TENSILE STRAINING OF STEEL WIRESM. Moscicki, H. Pinto, C. Paulman, A. Borbély, A.R. Pyzalla…Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy GmbH, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109 Berlin, Germany. ABSTRACT A new indexing procedure based on the direct measurement of the possible grain orientation is presented to characterize single grains …
IN-SITU STRESS ANALYSIS OF MULTILAYER ENVIRONMENTAL BARRIER COATINGSB.J. Harder, J. Almer, K.N. Lee, K.T. Faber…Coating stresses during cooling from 1000ºC were measured for as-sprayed and thermally cycled samples. In the as-sprayed state, tensile stresses as high as 75 MPa were measured in the doped-aluminosilicate topcoat at 375ºC, after which a drop in…
IN-SITU STUDY OF THE CYCLIC DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF THE MAGNESIUM BASE WROUGHT ALLOY AZ31 BY MEANS OF HIGH ENERGY SYNCHROTRON DIFFRACTIONJ. Gibmeier, M. Götting, B. Scholtes…Mat. Eng., 34125 Kassel (Germany) ABSTRACT With regard to the processing of structural lightweight components there exists an increasing demand for the application of magnesium base wrought alloys, which are highly textured due to the forming pr…
INFLUENCE OF COLD COMPRESSION ON THE RESIDUAL STRESSES IN 7449 FORGINGSJ.S. Robinson, S. Hossain, C.E. Truman, E.C. Oliver, D.J. Hughes, M.E. Fox…Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, Grenoble France. 5 Materials Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. ABSTRACT The through-thickness residual stress distributions within three large rectilinear aluminium alloy 7449…
INFLUENCE OF THE SAMPLE MORPHOLOGY ON TOTAL REFLECTION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSISC. Horntrich, F. Meirer, C. Streli, P. Kregsamer, G. Pepponi, N. Zoeger, P. Wobrauschek…In general TXRF is known to allow for linear calibration typically using an internal standard for quantification. For small sample amounts (low ng region) the thin film approximation is valid neglecting absorption effects of the exciting and the…
INTERFACE RESIDUAL STRESSES IN DENTAL ZIRCONIA USING LAUE MICRO-DIFFRACTIONH.A. Bale, N. Tamura, P.G. Coelho, J.C. Hanan…Among the ceramic materials, zirconia provides high toughness and crack resistant characteristics. Residual stresses develop in processing due to factors including grain anisotropy and thermal coefficient mismatch. In the present study, polychro…
LAYER GROWING/REMOVING METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ORTHOTROPIC NON-HOMOGENEOUS CYLINDERSJ. Kõo. J. Valgur…The stresses are calculated from strain measurements on the free stationary surface or from strain measurements on the cyl- inder’s moving surface. The suggested algorithm is programmed for PC. As an illustrative exam- ple, residual growth stres…
LOAD PARTITIONING IN A DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL WITH SURFACE STRENGTH GRADIENT AND RESIDUAL STRESSESR. Lin Peng, J. Gibmeier, G.C. Chai, S. Johansson…Two loading cycles with a peak tensile strain of 0.5% and 0.87%, respectively, were successively applied and the evolution of stresses in the respective constituent phases (austenite and ferrite) were measured in a 0.026 mm thick surface layer a…
MEASURING RESIDUAL STRESSES IN STAINLESS STEEL – RECENT EXPERIENCES WITHIN A VAMAS EXERCISEA.T. Fry, J.D. Lord…The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique is one of the most popular methods for measuring residual stress [1], used routinely in quality control and materials characterisation for validating models and design. The VAMAS TWA20 Project 3 activity on …
MG2SI-BASED MULTILAYER XRF ANALYZERS WITH TWO- AND THREE-LAYER STRUCTURE DESIGNY. Platonov, K. Shimizu, H. Kobayashi, G. Fournier, J. Rodriguez…These structures contain two, three or more different layer materials in a single period. The additional third, fourth, etc, layer was introduced for improving performance as well as for application dependent performance flexibility. Three-layer…
MICRO-SCALE RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT IN STEEL USING FOCUSED ION BEAM SLOTTING AND DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATIONN. Daynes, G. Horne, P.J. Heard, D.Z.L. Hodgson, A. Shterenlikht…A 20×5×3 mm steel sample was used. The sample was compressed uniaxially to 400 MPa. The sample sur- face was polished down to a grit size of 1 µm and then placed inside the FIB chamber. The sample surface was subjected to uniform FIB exposure (e…
MICROSCOPIC LOAD SHARING IN A DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL AND THE INFLUENCE OF PHASE PROPERTIESR. Lin Peng, G.C. Chai, A. Ellerman, S. Johansson, T. Manns…X-ray diffraction experiments under in-situ tensile loading with a peak stress close to the 0.2% proof stress were carried out to study the microscopic load sharing and the influence of the relative phase properties. It was observed that under e…
MICROSTRAIN ACCUMULATION IN MULTIPHASE SUPERALLOYSJ. Repper, M. Hofmann, C. Krempaszky, R.C. Wimpory, W. Petry, E. Werner…The elastic diffraction constants for all directions measured are compared to theoretical values calculated by the Kröner model. The differences between the microscopic and the macroscopic material response are given. The accumulation of microst…
MICROSTRUCTURE AND RESIDUAL STRESS FORMATION IN AN AA6040 TO AZ31B FRICTION STIR WELDR.S. Coelho, A. Kostka, H. Pinto, A. Rothkirch, J. dos Santos, A. Pyzalla…The complex material flow promoted by the friction stir welding process results in a fine grained structure in the stir zone of both materials due to dynamic/recovery recrystallization. The interface between the materials is characterized by the…
NATURAL NANOPARTICLE STRUCTURE, PROPERTIES AND REACTIVITY FROM X-RAY STUDIESG.A. Waychunas, B. Gilbert, J.F. Banfield, H. Zhang, Y.-S. Jun, C.S. Kim…Louis, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering 4Chapman University, Department of Chemistry ABSTRACT Synthetic analogs of naturally occurring nanoparticles have been studied by a range of x-ray techniques to determine their …
NEAR SURFACE STRESS GRADIENTS ANALYSIS BY GIXRD ON LASER SHOCKED 6056 ALUMINIUM ALLOY SAMPLESH.B. Song, P. Peyre, V. Ji, C.H. Jiang…Sci. & Engin., Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, P.R. China ABSTRACT Laser shock peening (LSP) can introduce a compressive stress profile for improving the materials’ surface mechanic properties. 6065 Aluminium alloy is introduced recently…
NEUTRON DIFFRACTION MEASUREMENTS ON A LARGE SIZE ROLLER BEARINGR.H. Vegter, T. Pirling, M. Peel…Since the introduced stress profiles depend on the treatment method and the necessary balancing tensile stresses may have unexpected consequences, it is necessary to quantify the stresses throughout the bearing. Today, most characterization of r…
NEUTRON DIFFRACTION STRESS ANALYSIS OF NEAR SURFACE STRESS GRADIENTS OF SURFACE TREATED STEEL SAMPLESJ. Gibmeier, J. Kornmeier, M. Hofmann…D-85747 Garching, Germany ABSTRACT For a quenched and tempered and subsequently shot peened steel plate of SAE 4140 the residual stress depth distribution was determined non-destructively by means of neutron diffraction at the STRESS-SPEC instru…
NEUTRON DIFFRACTION STUDIES ON STRAIN EVALUATION OF REBAR IN REINFORCED CONCRETEH. Suzuki, M. Kanematsu, K. Kusonoki…At first, absorption coefficients of several kinds of concretes with different compounding ratio of water, cement and aggregate were measured, and it was confirmed that the absorption coefficient of concrete was affected by the amounts of water …
NEUTRON LARMOR DIFFRACTION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ABSOLUTE LATTICE SPACINGJ. Repper, T. Keller, M. Hofmann, C. Krempaszky, W. Petry, E. Werner…The absolute value of lattice spacing can be measured to an accuracy of 7· 10-5 A. However, absolute determination of the lattice parameter is limited by the quality of the reference specimen used. Absolute lattice spacing determined by Larmor d…
NEW DEVELOPMENTS AT MATERIALS SCIENCE DIFFRACTOMETER STRESS-SPEC AT FRM IIJ. Kornmeier, M. Hofmann, U. Garbe, A. Ostermann, C. Randau, J. Repper, W. Tekouo, G.A. Seidl, R.C. Wimpory, R. Schneider, H.G. Brokmeier…Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebswissenschaften (iwb), TU München, D-85748 Garching, Germany Abstract The Materials Science Diffractometer STRESS-SPEC at the German neutron source FRM II is designed to meet the demands of non-destructive residual s…
NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON SHOT-PEENING INDUCED DEFORMATION. APPLICATION TO SHEET METAL FORMING.F. Cochennec, E. Rouhaud, L. Roucoules, B. Flan…Marie Curie BP2060 10010 TROYES Cedex FRANCE. 2Sisson Lehmann – Wheelabrator group. 24, rue Camille Didier BP39 08000 Charleville- Mezieres Cedex FRANCE. ABSTRACT The peen forming process is commonly used in the aeronautical industry to form lar…
ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS DUE TO SURFACE RESIDUAL STRESSES PRODUCED BY LOW TEMPERATURE CARBURIZINGG. Minak…Surface hardness over 1000 Vickers and compressive residual stresses whose modulus exceeds 1500 MPa are usually achieved in the carburized layer, thanks to the formation of the so-called “S-phase”, a carbon- supersaturated austenite phase. A sig…
OPERATIONAL RESIDUAL STRESS FORMATION IN VIBRATION-LOADED ROLLING CONTACTJ. Gegner, W. Nierlich…This hitherto unnoticed loading is illustrated by case examples. Smoothing of the machining structure reveals mixed friction. Material aging is shifted towards the surface despite almost indentation-free race- ways. Two distinct types of residua…
OPTIMIZING THE BALANCE OF QUALITY AND TURNAROUND TIME FOR A PROCESS CONTROL XRF LABORATORYS.W. Bowe…Because of the increasing value of the products and increasing production costs, and uses of data outside of process control, the quality of the Smelter Lab assays has become more important. A program was initiated to improve the quality of resu…
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS INVOLVING RESIDUAL STRESSES DURING GASEOUS NITRIDING OF STEELS. Jegou, R. Kubler, L. Barrallier, F. Roch…This treatment is known in the art but some advances still need to be done in terms of residual stress understanding. Although they originate from volume micro-loading accompanying the precipitation of nitrides, questions about their in-depth di…
PRECONCENTRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS BY AGAR FOR XRF ANALYSISK. Nakano, K. Okubo, K. Tsuji…The thin agar film was prepared by drying a homogeneous agar gel after mixing the aqueous sample solution with the agar powder. XRF analysis of the preconcentrated thin agar films containing trace metals showed a good repeatability, because agar…
PRELIMINARY STUDY OF A GEORGIA O’KEEFFE PASTEL DRAWING USING XRF AND ΜXRDL.B. Brostoff, C.I. Maynor, R.J. Speakman…Georgia O’Keeffe. XRF analyses showed that, among other pigments present in the drawing, the red, orange and yellow pigments may possibly be identified with lead- and chromium-based pigments: lead chromates, red and yellow lead oxides, and/or le…
PROCEDURE FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE RS-MEASUREMENTS OF INNER SURFACES OF BALL BEARING COMPONENTSJ. Epp, T. Hirsch…Thus, ideally a complete characterization of the componen residual stress state is required. Magnetic and micromagnetic analysis of residual stresses can represent an important gain of time if compared to X-ray diffraction. Another important adv…
QUANTITATIVE IN-SITU X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF EARLY HYDRATION OF PORTLAND CEMENT AT DEFINED TEMPERATURESC. Hesse, F. Goetz-Neunhoeffer, J. Neubauer, M. Braeu, P. Gaeberlein…Technical white cement was used for the XRD analysis on a D5000 diffractometer (Siemens). All diffraction patterns of the in-situ measurement which were recorded up to 22 hours of hydration at defined temperatures were analyzed by Rietveld refin…
RADIOACTIVE SAMPLE EFFECTS ON EDXRF SPECTRAC.G. Worley…Radioactive alpha emitters, however, emit X-rays during the alpha decay process that complicates spectral interpretation. This is particularly noticeable when using a portable instrument where the detector is located in close proximity to the in…
RADIOISOTOPE RH-101 AS X-RAY SOURCE FOR INSTRUMENTS ON SPACE MISSIONSCh. Stenzel, Ch. Schroer, B. Lengeler, M. Rasulbaev, R. Vianden…We discuss geological questions which we believe should be answered before any search for biological structures or pre-forms of life. We also suggest a method to produce Rh-101. Key words: Isotopes Rh-101, Am-241, XRD, XRF, Mars, Saturn’s moons …
RELAXATION OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN THIN FILMS INVESTIGATED USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATUIONT. Matsue, T. Hanabusa, K. Kusaka, O. Sakata…In a previous study, the crystal structure of TiN films deposited by AIP was found to be strongly influenced by the bias voltage during deposition. However, for film thickness of approximately 200 nm, TiN films deposited under bias voltages of –…
RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS WITH MULTIPLE HKL RINGS COLLECTED BY AREA DETECTORSB.B. He, A. Ulyanenkov…The sharp stress gradient, anisotropic grain shape and inhomogeneous phase and microstructure distribution also add difficulties in stress analysis with the conventional X-ray diffraction method. The nonlinear εψφ – sin2ψ behavior, commonly asso…
RESIDUAL STRESS DETERMINATION IN SURFACE TREATED ALUMINA SAMPLES APPLYING BEAM LIMITING MASKST. Manns, A. Rothkirch, B. Scholtes…For this purpose, beam limiting masks were designed, manufactured and investigated in first experiments. Image series taken with a position sensitive CCD-camera demonstrate the ability to detect interferences from gauge volumes beneath the sampl…
RESIDUAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION UNDER HARDENING LAYER OF CARBURIZED TRANSMISSION GEAR BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTIONY. Sakaida, M. Kawauchi, M. Manzanka…The material was chromium-molybdenum steel, SCM420. The carburized case depth was first determined by microscope, and then was measured by micro Vickers hardness tester. The neutron diffractions from Fe-110 and 211 planes were used for stress me…
RESIDUAL STRESS ESTIMATION OF TI CASTING ALLOY BY X-RAY SINGLE CRYSTAL MEASUREMENT METHODA. Shiro, M. Nishida, T. Hanabusa, J. Tian…Since the casting metals involve various kinds of residual stresses due to heat shrinkage, inclusion particles and so on, the accurate estimation of residual stresses is desired in the engineering field. The aim of the present study is to evalua…
RESIDUAL STRESS EVALUATION OF RAILWAY RAILSS. Takahashi, T. Sasaki, Y. Kondoh, Y. Hirose…Fracture mechanics clarification concerning the growth behavior of cracks is needed, in order to decide the inspection period and the cycle [1], [2]. Though the crack progression and influence of residual stress on fatigue strength has been rese…
RESIDUAL STRESS EVOLUTION ANALYSIS IN AZ31 FRICTION STIR WELDS USING X-RAY AND NEUTRON DIFFRACTIONL. Commin, L. Barrallier, J.E. Masse…Assessing the efficiency of new joining techniques, as Friction Stir Welding is then required. During Friction Stir Welding, the welding tool motion induces frictional heating and severe plastic deformation. Then, in addition to the microstructu…
RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT IN STEEL BEAMS USING THE INCREMENTAL SLITTING TECHNIQUED.Z.L. Hodgson, D.J. Smith, A. Shterenlikht…Initially a study into a number of factors affecting the series expansion ap- proach was conducted. Due to the over-determined nature of the series expansion approach appropriate selection of polynomial series order was necessary to develop the …
RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENTS BY SYNCHROTRON RADIATION FOR RAIL SURFACES DAMAGED BY ROLLING CONTACT FATIGUET. Sasaki, Y. Miyazawa…To accommodate future field measurements, the authors used an area detector type X-ray stress measurement. A method for determining the depth profile of stresses was also conducted. Furthermore, the measurements were made with synchrotron radiat…
RESIDUAL STRESS RELAXATION IN WELDED JOINTS UNDER STATIC AND CYCLIC LOADINGM. Farjian-Sohi, Th. Nitschke-Pagel, K. Dilger…Increased material utilization has necessitated increased consideration of the fatigue problem. In order to achieve a fatigue resistant welded structure, it is necessary to manage and control welding process related factors which reduce the fati…
RESIDUAL STRESSES ANALYSIS IN BRUSH-PLATED GALVANIC COATINGS DEPOSITED FROM NICKEL SULFATE ELECTROLYTEH. Lille, J. Kõo, A. Ryabchikov…To determine residual stresses, a conventional deformation method was used, where a coating is manually deposited on a brass strip substrate in the conditions of restraint bending. The change in the axial strain of the free surface is measured b…
RESIDUAL STRESSES AND DISTORTION SIMULATION OF NITRIDED DISCL. Barrallier, V. Goret, P. Vardon, D. Deloison…The combination of hardening effect and residual stress generation allows explaining the performance treatment. Precipitation phenomena can be linked to the stress and hardening generation. In order to optimize the design of part, modeling of ni…
RESIDUAL STRESSES AND IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF PHASE TRANSFORMATION IN LOW TRANSFORMATION TEMPERATURE (LTT) WELDING MATERIALST. Kannengiesser, A. Kromm, M. Rethmeier, J. Gibmeier, Ch. Genzel…For this kind of filler materials for the first time high energy synchrotron radiation was applied in order to characterise the effect of lowered martensite start temperatures on the welding residual stresses in-situ by means of en- ergy dispers…
RESIDUAL STRESSES IN BRUSH-PLATED GOLD COATINGH. Lille, J. Kõo, A. Ryabchikov, R. Laaneots…The calculation formula is extended Stoney’s formula which takes into consideration the real shape of the substrate, and the difference between the elasticity moduli and the coefficient of the thermal expansion of the coating and the substrate m…
RESIDUAL STRESSES IN COLD-DRAWN RODS: EFFECT OF A NOVEL POST-DRAWING TREATMENTJ. Ruiz-Hervias, M. Hofmann, J. Rebelo-Kornmeier, V. Luzin, M. Elices…Samples were first subjected to one drawing pass with 20% section reduction and then to a second pass with only 1% section reduction (“skin-pass” treatment). After the first pass, the calculated residual stresses are tensile at the rod surface a…
RESIDUAL STRESSES IN FRICTION STIR WELDING: NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONG. Buffa, L. Fratini, S. Pasta…Both numerical and experimental analyses were carried out to highlight the metallurgical phenomena and induced residual stresses in FS welded blanks. The welding process was simulated using a continuous rigid-viscoplastic finite element model (F…
RESIDUAL STRESSES IN MACHINED AND SHRINK-FITTED ASSEMBLIESB. Su, F. Hossainzadeh, C. Truman, D. Smith…Residual stresses were measured using a combination of deep-hole drilling (DHD) and incremental centre hole drilling (ICHD) techniques. The ICHD method provided near surface residual stress measurements to depths up to about 1mm. The DHD method …
RESIDUAL STRESSES IN NOVEL METAL/CERAMIC COMPOSITES EXHIBITING A LAMELLAR MICROSTRUCTURES. Roy, J. Gibmeier, A. Wanner…These composites are produced by melt infiltration of porous ceramic preforms produced by freeze-casting and subsequent sintering. This production route has a high application potential since it offers a cost-effective way to obtain composites w…
RESIDUAL STRESSES OF EB-PVD THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS EXPOSED TO HIGH TEMPERATUREK. Suzuki, T. Shobu, K. Tanaka…As the top coating, zirconia with 4 mol% yttria was electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) on the rotating substrate. The rotation speeds in the EB-PVD process were 5, 10 and 20rpm. The specimens were exposed to 1273K in air atmosphere …
SMALL CREEP DEFORMATIONS AND RESIDUAL STRESS RELAXATION IN WELDED AND SHOT PEENED AL MG SI CU-ALUMINUM ALLOYST. Hirsch, S. Daichendt…For a laser beam welded AlMgSiCu-alloy, results of applied stress and residual stress relaxation at elevated temperatures 100<T<150°C are presented. These experiments prove the existence of back stresses. The level of these stresses can be estim…
SPATIALLY RESOLVED STRAIN MEASUREMENTS ON MICRO MOULDSA. Kienzler, B. Okolo, V. Schulze, A. Wanner…Surface treatment involved a sequential application of grinding, micro milling and abrasive micro peening processes. The micro-features created at the milled surfaces were studied using a high lateral resolution CCD based Material X-ray Imaging …
STUDY ON COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY AND STRAIN MAPPING NEAR THE INTERNAL CRACK TIP OF STEEL BAR USING SYNCHROTRON WHITE X-RAYJ. Shibano, K. Kajiwara, K. Kiriyama, T. Shobu, K. Suzuki, T. Arai, S. Miura, M. Kobayashi…JASRI, Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo, 679-5148 Japan. 3 SPring-8 Service Co., Ltd., Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo, 679-5148 Japan. 4 Dept. of Tech. and Living Sci., Niigata Univ., 8050, Igarashi-2-no-cho, Niigata, 950-2181 Japan. ABSTRACT A …
SURFACE RESIDUAL STRESSES IN DRY TURNING OF 0.45% C STEELT. Leppert, R. Lin Peng…Depending on their kind and the type of applied loading, the influence of residual stresses can be negative or positive. Tensile residual stresses usually exert highly detrimental impact on several functional aspects such as strength, fatigue li…
SURFACE WORKHARDENING AND RESIDUAL STRESSES INDUCED BY MICRO CUTTING PROCESSESH. Autenrieth, B. Okolo, V. Schulze, A. Wanner…The influence of the ploughing effect on residual stresses, surface deformation and work hardening, and the tool quality were investigated. Tensile residual stresses, caused by the heat generated in the material during the cutting process, were …
SYNCHROTRON XRF ANALYSES OF ELEMENT DISTRIBUTION IN FOSSILIZED SAUROPOD DINOSAUR BONESM. Dumont, N. Zoeger, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, G. Falkenberg, P.M. Sander, A.R. Pyzalla…This sheer size of the sauropod leads to scale effects in their biology and physiology that still are inadequately understood. The only remnants of the sauropods are their fossilized bones. These fossilized bones have sustained burial for some h…
THE BASIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESIDUAL STRESS PROFILE PATTERNS AND FATIGUE LIFE OF PRECISION MACHINED SURFACES IN ROLLING CONTACTY.B. Guo, A.W. Warren…The key findings of this study are: (a) The basic RS profiles by a sharp tool can be fundamentally changed by a turned WL but not a ground WL; (b) The hook shaped RS profile of a turned surface may have about 40% more fatigue life than a ground …
THE EFFECTS OF CASTING PARAMETERS ON RESIDUAL STRESSES AND MICROSTRUCTURE VARIATIONS OF AN AL- SI CAST ALLOYS. Mohsen Sadrossadat, S. Johansson…The microstructure of Al-Si cast alloys is influenced by the morphology of silicon particles (shape, size and distribution), aluminum grain size and dendrite parameters. Dimensional changes resulting from casting caused by residual stresses can …
THE EXTENT OF RELAXATION OF WELD RESIDUAL STRESSES ON CUTTING OUT CROSS-WELD TEST-PIECESJ. Altenkirch, A. Steuwer, M.J. Peel, P.J. Withers…Similarly weld mechanical performance tests are frequently undertaken on cross-weld test-pieces without a proper understanding of the level or influence of retained RS. We present a systematic study of the relaxation of longitudinal RS in thin-p…
USING XRD ELASTIC AND PLASTIC STRAIN DATA TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT COLD-WORKING TECHNIQUES IN AEROSPACE MATERIALSB.S. Matlock, D.J. Snoha, S.M. Grendahl…Shot peening and cold expansion of holes are two techniques for imparting beneficial compressive stresses. X-ray diffraction is a direct method for measuring elastic strains. Diffraction peak widths are an indication of plastic strain. Elastic a…
WHY SHOULD WE GIVE UP THE SIN2 METHODB. Ortner…Quantitative comparisons have been made for different fictitious measurements. It is shown that the – unnecessary – loss in accuracy by using the sin2 ψ method is quite significant and by no means negligible. The same course of action has been a…
X-RAY ANALYSIS OF PRECIPITATES FORMED IN COPPER-BASE ALLOYSS.Sato, Y.Takahashi, T.Sanada, K.Shinoda, K.Wagatsuma, S.Suzuki…Ni2Si precipitates with wide nanometer size distribution were formed in the Cu-Ni-Si alloys after a long aging time of 104 s. However, the addition of a small amount of Fe appears to reduce the wide-size distribution of the precipitates in the a…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION CHARACTERIZATION OF MOVPE ZNSE FILMS DEPOSITED ON (100) GAAS USING CONVENTIONAL AND HIGH-RESOLUTION DIFFRACTOMETERST.N. Blanton, C.L. Barnes, M. Holland, K.B. Kahen, S.K. Gupta, F. Bai…ZnSe has a large band gap, 2.76 eV, as well as a near lattice match to GaAs, 5.6688 Å vs. 5.6538 Å, respectively. In this study a metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) deposition technique is used to produce doped and undoped thin films of Z…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDY OF ANISOTROPIC STATE OF RESIDUAL STRESS AFTER DOWN-CUT AND UP-CUT FACE GRINDINGZ. Pala, N. Ganev, J. Drahokoupil…Nevertheless, there is a pronounced distinction in the fashion of material removal which could lead to unequal states of surface residual stress. By means of X-ray diffraction analysis, ground plates made from three types of steel were investiga…
X-RAY GRAZING INCIDENCE TECHNIQUE . CORRECTIONS IN RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT . A REVIEWS. Wronski, K. Wierzbanowski, A. Baczmanski, A. Lodini, Ch. Braham, W. Seiler…The most important is the refraction of X-ray wave: it changes the wave length and direction of the beam. The both effects modify a pick position. A corresponding correction was calculated and tested on ferrite powder and on 316L austenite stainl…
X-RAY IN-SITU RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT OF FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC COMPOSITEY. Watanabe, M. Nishida, T. Hanabusa…ABSTRACT Recently, the use of fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs) in industrial applications has been increasing dratically. A reliable method for estiting the stress in FRPs is required. In this study, the residual stresses in FRP samples were mea…
X-RAY MULTIAXIAL STRESS ANALYSIS USING TWO DEBYE RINGST. Sasaki, Y. Kobayashi…In the method of this study, two Debye rings are used for determining stresst hrough the relative change of diffraction data as much as possible like the sin2ø method. It is not necessary to prepare the precise d0 value when the stress component…
X-RAY STRESS MEASUREMENT OF NICKEL-BASE SINGLE CRYSTAL SUPERALLOY USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL DETECTORK. Tanaka, S. Machiya, Y. Akiniwa…The specimen whose surface normal was parallel to [001] direction was oscillated around φ-axis during recording of the X-ray diffraction pattern with a two-dimensional position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC). The stress was determined fro…
XRF OF CULTURAL HERITAGE MATERIALS: ROUND-ROBIN IV – PAINT ON CANVASC. Namowicz, K. Trentelman, C. McGlinchey…In 2008 the round-robin explored the application of XRF to the study of paintings on canvas. Thirteen samples, consisting of both modern and traditional pigments on canvas, were distributed to 25 participating institutions for analysis. The samp…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2007 – VOL51

A BERYLLIUM DOME SPECIMEN HOLDER FOR XRD ANALYSIS OF AIR SENSITIVE MATERIALSMark A. Rodriguez, Timothy J. Boyle, Pin Yang, and Damon L. Harris…The specimen holder has a robust o-ring type seal (>10-9 torr) and no observed intensity artifacts in the 1° to 150° 2θ range. The design also minimizes specimen displacement errors and allows for analysis of both powders and bulk specimens (i.e…
A NEW APPROACH TO FITTING THE SPECTRA FROM THE MARS ROVER ALPHA-PARTICLE X-RAY SPECTROMETERSJohn L. Campbell, May Lee, Brian N. Jones, and John A. Maxwell…Full matrix corrections for both excitation modes are included, and element concentrations are deduced. The code is intended for eventual use in processing spectra from the alpha-particle X-ray spectrometers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers (M…
A NOVEL 2D ANALYSIS METHOD TO CHARACTERIZE INDIVIDUAL GRAINS USING HIGH-ENERGY X-RAY MICROBEAM DIFFRACTIONE. Jimenez-Melero, N. H. van Dijk, L. Zhao, J. Sietsma, and S. van der Zwaag…Its application to study in situ the martensitic transformation of small individual austenite (fcc) grains embedded in a complex ferritic/bainitic/martensitic (bcc) multiphase microstructure is also reported. INTRODUCTION The design and developm…
ANALYSIS OF PIGMENTS USED IN A JAPANESE PAINTINGYasuhiro Hayakawa, Seiji Shirono, Sadatoshi Miura, and Tomohide Matsushima…A pair of six-panel folding screens entitled The Irises Screens by Ogata Korin, a National Treasure of Japan, was examined. A scientific approach had never been incorporated into its investigation, and its materials and techniques had remained u…
ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DISCRIMINATING STARDUST IN AEROGEL CAPTURE MEDIASean Brennan, Hope A. Ishii, John P. Bradley, Katharina Luening, Konstantin Ignatyev, and Piero Pianetta…These analytical methods are necessitated by the levels of trace contaminants present in the aerogel. The cometary material disaggregates during deceleration in the aerogel, so fluorescence mapping of the entire track (which can be several milli…
BORON IN GLASS DETERMINATION USING WDXRFAlexander Seyfarth…Advances in XRF instrumentation have enabled improvement in the analysis of boron. Reduced window thickness and high-current capabilities of X-ray tubes, as well as new analyzer crystals, produce a higher intensity boron signal. With correct det…
COMPARISON OF SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL XRPD PATTERNS OF SILVER WITH TWIN FAULTS USING MAUD AND DIFFAXPaul J. Schields, Nicholas Dunwoody, Marc Mamak, Claire Gendron, and Simon Bates…MAUD was used to refine the DIFFaX-simulated patterns to determine systematic differences between these simulation programs. The results indicated the Warren model of twin faults is applicable for fault probabilities <10% and DIFFaX and MAUD fau…
CRYSTALLITE MORPHOLOGY IN GOLD CATALYSTS OBTAINED BY RIETVELD REFINEMENTXim Bokhimi, Antonio Morales, and Rodolfo Zanella…Three-dimensional images of the crystallites were generated in real space, as well as 3-D images of the microstrain distribution in reciprocal space. These images were used to analyze the effect of the different parameters of the refinement mode…
DEVELOPMENT OF A PREDICTIVE LIFE TOOL FOR TAPERED ROLLER BEARINGS USING MEASURED RESIDUAL STRESS AND RETAINED AUSTENITE DATABrent M. Wilson and Matthew G. Dick…Case-carburized tapered roller bearings used in the railroad industry are manufactured with a dual-phase microstructure that consists primarily of tempered martensite and retained austenite. The retained austenite phase is metastable, and will t…
DISLOCATION MODEL OF STRAIN ANISOTROPYTamás Ungár…Based on this theorem strain anisotropy is modeled and accounted for by assuming that strain broadening is caused by dislocations or di. The effect of strain anisotropy is summarized in hkl dependent dislocation contrast factors, which can be ei…
EFFECTS OF HYDROGEN ON THE INTERACTIONS OF FUEL CELL SEALING GLASSES WITH INTERCONNECT ALLOYSS. T. Misture…Experiments under 4% hydrogen and air at temperatures up to 1000 °C showed that both sealants react rapidly with alumina and chromia, but not with NiO. The crystallization of the high-CTE phase BaCrO4 was noted for G18 in contact with chromia or…
ELABORATION ON THE HEXAGONAL GRID AND SPIRAL TRACE SCHEMES FOR POLE FIGURE DATA COLLECTIONAnthony C. Rizzie, Thomas R. Watkins, and E. Andrew Payzant…Applying the concepts of stereographic and equal area projections with geometry, spreadsheets were created to calculate the angular settings of the goniometer. Using the generated settings, the hexagonal grid and spiral trace schemes were progra…
ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF METALLIC THIN FILMS: 2D SYNCHROTRON XRD ANALYSIS DURING IN SITU TENSILE TESTINGG. Geandier, P.-O. Renault, S. Teat, P. Goudeau, and E. Le Bourhis…Model nanometric multilayer W/Au systems exhibiting different microstructures were analyzed. These films are supported by a (thin) polyimide substrate. X-ray diffraction in transmission geometry was used to study the deformations of both phases …
EMPLOYING X-RAY SCATTERING TO CHARACTERIZE MATERIALS WITH GRAIN SIZES IN THE NANO-REGIMEE. A. Laitila and D. E. Mikkola…Observations of X-ray scattering as RMM processing time increases show severe broadening of matrix diffraction peaks, accompanied by the appearance of diffraction peaks resulting from the formation of very small crystallites of TiC and TiH1.92 p…
FILTER DEBRIS ANALYSIS BY ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE APPLIED TO J52P408 ENGINESGary R. Humphrey…This technique, developed by the U.S. Department of Defense’s Joint Oil Analysis Technical Support Center (JOAP-TSC), is termed filter debris analysis (FDA). Six beta prototype instruments capable of performing FDA-EDXRF in an automated mode wer…
FLEXIBLE FILAMENTOUS VIRUS STRUCTURES FROM FIBER DIFFRACTIONGerald Stubbs, Amy Kendall, Michele McDonald, Wen Bian, Timothy Bowles, Sarah Baumgarten, Ian McCullough, Jian Shi, Phoebe Stewart, Esther Bullitt, David Gore, and Said Ghabrial…Analysis of the data in conjunction with cryo-electron microscopy data allowed us to determine the symmetry of the viruses and to make reconstructions of SMV at 19 Å resolution and of another potexvirus, papaya mosaic virus, at 18 Å resolution. …
FULL PATTERN COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND CALCULATED POWDER PATTERNS USING THE INTEGRAL INDEX METHOD IN PDF-4+John Faber and Justin Blanton…The software integrated into the PDF-4 (DDView+) provides the ability to calculate fully digitized diffraction patterns for all 272,232 entries (PDF-4+ 2007). To provide a means of quantitative comparison between entries in the Power Diffraction…
GONIOMETER INDUCED BIAS IN PEAK POSITION MAP DATAK. W. Kirchner and K. A. Jones…The confirmed bias adds a complex curvature to the PPMs that runs orthogonal to the XZ plane of the goniometer and whose major folds bend around axes parallel to the Y-axis. INTRODUCTION Through the plotting of X, Y, and θ for each scan of an or…
HANDY WAVEGUIDE TXRF SPECTROMETER FOR NANOGRAM SENSITIVITYShinsuke Kunimura and Jun Kawai…The signal to background ratios of spectra decreased with an increase in incident X-ray beam size. The portable spectrometer was also applied to rainwater and a specimen containing antimony and rare earth elements. Nanograms of elements in these…
HIGH-THROUGHPUT SYSTEM FOR SYNCHROTRON X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTOMETRYKenichi Kato, Masaki Takata, and Tetsuya Ishikawa…An automatic sample exchanger, image recognition system for automatic sample position alignment, and online detector have been developed and linked to each other by our original control program. As a result, time taken except for X-ray exposure …
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MONTE CARLO-LIBRARY LEAST-SQUARES APPROACH TO ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSISFusheng Li, Weijun Guo, and Robin P. Gardner…This software is a visualization system developed on the Borland C++ Builder platform and has a user-friendly interface to accomplish all qualitative and quantitative tasks easily. The software enables users to run the forward Monte Carlo simula…
IMPROVING THE DETECTION LIMIT IN EDXRF WITH PROPORTIONAL COUNTERI. A. Brytov, A. D. Goganov, and R. I. Plotnikov…This can be achieved by the design of instruments and evacuation or He-inletting in a measurement camera. The objective of this work was to design a simple and inexpensive sulfur analyzer based on a gas proportional counter equipped with an air …
IN SITU STRESS MEASUREMENT OF BIAXIALLY STRAINED ALUMINUM ALLOY 5754-OMark A. Iadicola and Thomas H. Gnaeupel-Herold…The method uses a portable X-ray diffraction (XRD) system to measure in situ stresses during tensile deformations. Calibration of X-ray elastic constants and the effects of texture and intergranular stresses are discussed. Uniaxial data measured…
IN SITU STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF BPDA-PPD POLYIMIDE THIN FILM USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL GRAZING INCIDENCE X-RAY DIFFRACTIONJ. Kikuma, T. Nayuki, T. Ishikawa, G. Asano, and S. Matsuno…Optimizing the sample shape, two-dimensional images were measured successfully without sacrificing angle resolution. It has been clearly shown that the crystallization first begins in the in-plane direction, at the curing temperature of 180 °C, …
MICROFOCUSING X-RAY EQUIPMENT FOR THE LAB DIFFRACTOMETERJörg Wiesmann, Jürgen Graf, Christian Hoffmann, Carsten Michaelsen, Alexandra Oehr, Uwe Preckwinkel, Ning Yang, Holger Cordes, and Kurt Erlacher…Measurements with the new low-maintenance, high-brilliance microfocus source IµS equipped with different two-dimensional beam shaping multilayer optics are shown. The comparison of IµS with typical sealed tube fine focus systems shows data of ou…
MICROSCANNING XRF, XANES, AND XRD STUDIES OF THE DECORATED SURFACE OF ROMAN TERRA SIGILLATA CERAMICSC. Mirguet, P. Sciau, P. Goudeau, A. Mehta, P. Pianetta, Z. Liu, and N. Tamura…A mixture Gallic slip sample cross-section showing red and yellow colors was studied. The small (micron) size of the X-ray beam available at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) and Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron sources, co…
MINIMAL USE OF STANDARDS FOR QUANTIFYING TRACE ELEMENTS IN PLASTICSW. T. Elam, Bruce Scruggs, Robert B. Shen, Laszlo Herczeg, Andrew Lee, and Joseph A. Nicolosi…The fundamental parameters method, backed up by one or more standards, is used to translate XRF intensities into quantitative information about trace element concentrations. The method includes accounting for variations in sample thickness using…
MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF PROJECTIONS IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHYB. Chyba, M. Mantler, and M. Reiter…A meaningful comparison with measurements was therefore possible. Coherent and incoherent scattering as well as excitation of fluorescent radiation are accounted for; multiple sequences of these interactions are followed up to a selectable order…
NEXT GENERATION X-RAY DETECTORS FOR IN-HOUSE XRDTakeyoshi Taguchi, Christian Brönnimann, and Eric F. Eikenberry…PILATUS detectors are two-dimensional hybrid pixel array detectors, which operate in single-photon counting mode. PILATUS detectors feature a very wide dynamic range (1:1,000,000), very short read out time (< 3.0 msec), no readout noise, and ver…
PERFORMANCE OF A BOREHOLE XRF SPECTROMETER FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATIONWarren C. Kelliher, Ingrid A. Carlberg, W. T. Elam, and Ella Willard-Schmoe…It will be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary performance metrics for the instrument are the lower limits of detection over a wide range of the periodic …
PERFORMANCE OF A ROOM TEMPERATURE GAS PROPORTIONAL SCINTILLATION COUNTER IN X-RAY ANALYSIS OF METALLIC ALLOYS EXCITED WITH ALPHA PARTICLESF.I.G.M Borges, S.J.C. do Carmo, T.H.V.T. Dias, F.P. Santos, F.P.S.C. Gil, A.M.F. Trindade, R.M. Curado, C.A.N. Conde…The curved grid technique was used for solid angle compensation and the photosensor is a photomultiplier tube with a 50 mm diameter quartz window. For an energy range between 2.5 and 25 keV it can work at counting rates up to 20,000 events/s, pr…
REAL-SPACE STRAIN MAPPING OF SOI FEATURES USING MICROBEAM X-RAY DIFFRACTIONConal E. Murray, S. M. Polvino, I. C. Noyan, B. Lai, and Z. Cai…Strain engineering in microelectronic technology represents an important aspect of the enhancement in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device performance. Because of the complexity of the composite geometry associated with microele…
RHOMBOHEDRAL-CUBIC PHASE TRANSITION CHARACTERIZATION OF (PB,GE)TE USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE XRDJ. Sariel, Y. Gelbstein, and I. Dahan…Samples of Bi2Te3 doped Pb1-xGexTe were prepared by powder metallurgy approach. These powder samples were examined by high-temperature XRD and SEM/EDS. A bulk (pressed powder) cylindrical specimen was used for dilatometery characterizations. Acc…
STRESS AND COMPOSITION EVALUATION FOR GRADIENT NITRIDE COATINGST. A. Alexeeva, V. V. Uglov, V. M. Anishchik, S. V. Zlotski, J. Brechbühl, H. Guerault, A. Lazar, A. Ulyanenkov, and T. Baumbach…The deposition was carried out by combining the titanium and chromium plasma flows of various densities. The deposited coatings were found to be two-phase (solid solution and titanium nitride) systems. The residual stress and density depth profi…
THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTILAYER MIRROR SYSTEM USING CUKΑ AND CRKΑ RADIATION FOR USE IN MICRO BEAM X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETRYKatsunari Sasaki, Yukio Hirose, Masataka Maeyama, Joseph D. Ferrara, and Toshihiko Sasaki…Multilayer optics technology is a well-known tool to produce a monochromatic micro X-ray beam for XRD. This new optic was combined with a microfocus rotating anode X-ray generator and a cylindrical imaging plate detector to provide a complete du…
THE EVALUATION OF PREFERENTIAL ALIGNMENT OF BIOLOGICAL APATITE (BAP) CRYSTALLITES IN BONE USING A TRANSMISSION X-RAY DIFFRACTION METHODKatsunari Sasaki, Takayoshi Nakano, Yukichi Umakoshi, Joseph D. Ferrara, and Toshihiko Sasaki…The same measurement was done with CuKα radiation. Copper Kα is the most commonly used radiation for powder diffraction because it provides good resolution of the resultant lines but is more cumbersome because it requires slicing the bone into t…
THE STRUCTURE OF CELLULOSESMasahisa Wada, Yoshiharu Nishiyama, Henri Chanzy, Trevor Forsyth, and Paul Langan…The detailed crystal structures determined for cellulose Iβ, an intermediate ammonia-cellulose I complex, and cellulose IIII, reveal a structural transition pathway: hydrogen bonded sheets of chains in cellulose Iβ slip with respect to each othe…
UNDERSTANDING THE COMET WILD 2 MINERALOGY IN SAMPLES FROM THE STARDUST MISSIONFrans J. M. Rietmeijer…This mission became the first successful sample- return mission since the Apollo project. This time the challenges were much less related to the availability of state-of-the-art analytical capabilities. Still, dedicated tools had to be developed…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF LI-BASED COMPLEX HYDRIDES AFTER PRESSURE CYCLINGWen-Ming Chien, Dhanesh Chandra, and Joshua H. Lamb…The effects of pressure cycling are important for long- term reliability of Li-based hydrides. Commercial grade hydrogen containing low-level impurities (O2, H2O, CO/CO2) was used for this study to show the effect of cycling on hydrogen storage …


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2006 – VOL50

AN ENVIRONMENTAL STAGE FOR IN-SITU STUDIES OF BIOPOLYMERS IN HIGH PRESSURE CO2A.V. Nawaby, P.S. Whitfield, X. Liao…This stage is designed to fit onto a normal laboratory powder diffractometer. Together with the use of MoKα radiation and a Bruker Våntec PSD detector, this stage will allow extensive studies on the kinetics of polymer crystallization under sub-…
AN EXAFS STUDY OF PHOTOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT IN PHOTOTHERMOGRAHIC FILMST.N. Blanton, D.R. Whitcomb, S.T. Misture…The results of the EXAFS analysis indicate that the intensity for the real-space peak for the Ag-O distance (~2.3 Å) decreases while the real-space peak for the Ag- Ag distance (~2.9 Å) grows with increasing thermal processing of the film. The c…
ANALYSIS OF LOW MASS ABSORPTION MATERIALS USING GLANCING INCIDENCE X-RAY DIFFRACTIONN.A. Raftery, L.K. Bekessy, J. Bowpitt…After conversion for the James relationship there is very little difference between the symmetric and asymmetric parallel beam data for 2θ > 2ω, however care must be taken to properly weight the data in the asymmetric case if it were to be used …
ANOMALOUS SCATTERING FROM SINGLE CRYSTAL SUBSTRATEL.K. Bekessy, N.A. Raftery, S. Russell…There is a broad weak feature at about the expected diffraction angle of 2θh`k`l` and a narrow feature whose position depends solely on the incidence angle. The broad feature is the Bragg diffraction of the X-ray tube spectral components while t…
DEPTH RESOLVED X RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF COPPER CHARGED MUSCOVITE MICAR. Simon, U. Kerdpin, F. Friedrich, W. Faubel, P. Weidler, R. Nüesch…For studies of delamination, the ITC-WGT institute has developed a method to intercalate polyvalent metal ions, like Cu2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ or Al3+ into muscovite. This paper refers to X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) of these samples at ANKA synchro…
DESIGN OF SINGLE BOUNCE MONO-CAPILLARY X-RAY OPTICSS. Cornaby, T. Szebenyi, R. Huang, D.H. Bilderback…We have been able to manufacture optics that have produced x-ray spot sizes from 5 to 50 μm, gains in intensity of 10 to 500, divergences from 2 to 9 milliradians, and working distances between the tip of the capillary to the focus ranging from …
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A THULIUM BASED INTERNAL STANDARD METHOD FOR HIGH ACCURACY NICKEL ANALYSISS. Reeves, D. Brown, J. Metz…XRF Scientific Ltd, 24/200 Canterbury Rd, Bayswater, Victoria 3153, Australia ABSTRACT We present a new, relatively inexpensive technique using a thulium (Tm) internally doped flux (type 12:22 SRT) developed by X-Ray Flux Pty.Ltd., and tested an…
DEVELOPMENT OF A QUANTITATIVE EDXRF METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE CONCENTRATION OF PALLADIUM APPLIED TO TOBACCOJ. Lipscomb, M. Chang, T. Danielson, C. Connell, S. Zimmermann…Control and standards were created in-house with different levels of Pd concentration. After application of the Pd in a salt solution, the tobacco had an average oven volatiles (OV) value of 27.6%. Three aliquots were analyzed at each concentrat…
FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS ANALYSIS OF ROHS ELEMENTS IN PLASTICSW.T. Elam, R.B. Shen, B. Scruggs, J.A. Nicolosi…XRF is a convenient method for detecting the presence and measuring the amounts of these elements. Reliably quantifying all of these elements in plastics typically requires a large number of standards that are not yet readily available. Because …
HIGH PRESSURE DEFORMATION STUDY OF ZIRCONIUMS.C. Vogel, H. Reiche, D.W. Brown…Studies of active deformation mechanisms, the interplay of deformation with texture and ultimately the development of predictive capabilities for deformation modeling are an active field of research. Parameters studied by diffraction are typical…
MECHANICS OF MICROELECTRONICS STRUCTURES AS REVEALED BY X-RAY DIFFRACTIONC.E. Murray, H. Yan, I.C. Noyan…Math., New York, NY 10027 ABSTRACT The presence of strain distributions within semiconductor features influences many aspects of their behavior. For example, microelectronic technology that incorporates strained silicon improves device performan…
MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF X-RAY FLUORESCENCE FOR TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCHJ. Börjesson, S. Matsson…Toxic, nonessential, trace elements may cause tempo- rary or permanent damage to various organs and tissues in humans. There is thus a need to con- trol the concentrations. Knowledge of the relations between toxic effects and element concentra- …
NON-DESTRUCTIVE ANALYSIS OF A PAINTING, NATIONAL TREASURE IN JAPANY. Hayakawa , S. Shirono, S. Miura, T. Matsushima, T. Uchida…Several assumptions were made about the materials used in the red and white plum trees drawn on the right and left screen respectively, and the river drawn at the center. By the present investigation, the materials used for the paintings were re…
OPTIMIZATION OF A DRIED RESIDUE SPECIMEN PREPARATION METHOD FOR QUANTIFYING ANALYTES IN PLUTONIUM METAL USING WDXRFC.G. Worley, L.P. Colletti…This technique was developed to eliminate the potential for radioactive liquid to leak into the spectrometer, decrease specimen preparation time, and minimize waste. Samples were cast in µL quantities onto Kapton, and a surfactant was added to d…
PROPERTIES AND GENERAL USE OF THE X-RAY ELASTIC FACTORSB. Ortner…It is shown that the matrix Fij(φ, ψ, hkl) which is usually called X-ray elastic factors, behaves as a second rank tensor. Since this behaviour is the only criterion for the question of whether or not it is a tensor, the F-matrix must be regarde…
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS WITH THE TRANSITION EDGE SENSOR MICROCALORIMETER X-RAY DETECTORT. Jach, N. Ritchie,, J. Ullom, J.A. Beall…Two bulk samples of multielement glasses that have been previously characterized by chemical methods for use as standard reference materials were analyzed. The spectra were analyzed against standards using three different correction schemes. In …
RESIDUAL STRESS STATE OF HYDROXYAPATITE GRADED COATING ON CERAMIC SUBSTRATEL. Che, M. Gotoh, L. Yang, Y. Hirose…The present study aims to identify the residual stress distribution behavior in the coating by X-ray diffraction technique and to correlate it to the graded interlayer structure. Residual stress measurement results show the graded compound inter…
SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF NICKEL, COBALT AND IRON BASE ALLOYS USING THE FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETER METHODY. Kataoka, E. Furusawa, H. Kohno, T. Arai, A. Martin, H. Inoue, M. Mantler…The results obtained were satisfactory and demonstrated that the method can be applied to the analyses of both, major and trace elements using a multi-channel spectrometer. For example, 0.14wt% of accuracy was obtained for nickel within a concen…
SIMULTANEOUS REFINEMENTS WITH COMPLEX COMPOSITIONAL CONSTRAINTS – EXAMPLE OF SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION TO DIAGNOSE POOR MATRIX CONDITIONINGP.S. Whitfield, I.J. Davidson, P.H.J. Mercier, Y. Le Page, L.D. Mitchell, P.W. Stephens, L.M.D Cranswick, I.P. Swainson…SVDdiagnostic examines both the unprocessed and pre-conditioned matrices and outputs a ‘condition’ number as well as combinations of variables causing pseudo-singularity. Shrewd use of this diagnostic tool allowed structural details to be extrac…
STRESS MITIGATION OF X-RAY BEAMLINE MONOCHROMATORS USING A TOPOGRAPHY TEST UNITJ. Maj, G. Waldschmidt, A. Macrander, I. Koshelev, R. Huang, L.Maj, A. Maj…The device used to mount the crystal has been shown to be a major contributing source of stress. In this case, an adjustable mounting device is an effective method of reducing stresses and improve the rocking curve to levels much closer to ideal…
STRUCTURE DETERMINATION FROM POWDER DIFFRACTION DATA OF SOME MOISTURE-SENSITIVE NETWORK COORDINATION COMPOUNDSP.S. Whitfield, A. Abouimrane, I.J. Davidson…The phases LiX(succinonitrile)2 (X = PF6-, AsF6-, ClO4-) were identified as undesirable phases that formed at low salt concentrations in succinonitrile. The silver analogues of these systems also exist as crystalline phases, but the lithium salt…
STUDIES OF LOCAL AND INTERMEDIATE RANGE STRUCTURE IN CRYSTALLINE AND AMORPHOUS MATERIALS AT HIGH PRESSURE USING HIGH-ENERGY X-RAYSL. Ehm, S.M. Antao, J. Chen, D.R. Locke, F.M. Michel, C.D. Martin, T. Yu, P.L. Lee, P.J. Chupas, S.D. Shastri, Q. Guo, J.B. Parise…Parise1 1Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2100, USA 2Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA 3X17B3, National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, U…
THE ANALYSIS OF STRESS DISTRIBUTION BASED ON MEASUREMENTS USING TWO METHODS OF X-RAY APPLICATIONB. Kucharska…The state of stress was examined in a standard steel tensile test specimen that had been previously ground and then statically loaded with an effective strain of 0.45% and 1%, respectively. Stress measurements were carried out by the sin2ψ metho…
THE CLAISSE-CALCULATOR OF SAMPLES ACIDITY APPLICATIONSF. Claisse…Its operation is briefly described. In addition, the Calculator has been used by the author to explain a) what causes the sample to have a preference for a given flux composition, and b) what causes molten glass sticking to crucibles and moulds….
UNIT CELL EXPANSION IN ERT2 FILMSM.A. Rodriguez, J.F. Browning, C.S. Frazer, C.S. Snow, R.G. Tissot, E.P. Boespflug…Texture analysis of an aged ErT2 film reveals a bimodal (111)/(200) out-of-plane preferred orientation. Sin2ψ analysis reveals significant in-plane macro- strain due to 3He formation/growth. The mechanistic origins regarding these observations a…
VALIDATION OF AN ALKALI REACTION, BORATE FUSION, X-RAY FLUORESCENCE METHOD FOR SILICON METALJ.R. Sieber, E.A. Mackey, A.F. Marlow, R. Paul, R. Martin…Suggested for this purpose by Blanchette (Adv. X-Ray Anal., 45, 415, 2002), the alkali reaction uses LiOH·H2O to convert Si to Li2SiO3. Lithium silicate is fused with lithium borate flux without damage to platinum ware. Once specimens are fused …
X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY: DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE FUSION PROCEDURES FOR LIME PRODUCTSJ.-P. Gagnon…XRF combined with borate fusion is commonly used in production laboratories because it provides fast and accurate analysis. Sample preparation problems arise with samples containing large amounts of carbonates. They are reported to foam and run …
X-RAY STRESS ANALYSIS EMPLOYING THE LATTICE PARAMETER ELLIPSOIDR.E. Ogilvie, U. Kaminaga, H. Sugiyama, J. Nicolich…The semi-axes of the ellipsoid will have the values of (r + εx), (r + εy), and (r + εz), which are replaced by dx, dy, and dz, or for the cubic case, ax, ay, and az. In this technique, at a particular Phi angle (see Figure 1), the two-theta posi…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2005 – VOL49

3D INTERACTIVE DATA LANGUAGE POLE FIGURE VISUALIZATIONC.S. Frazer, M.A. Rodriguez, R.G. Tissot…The data can also be used to calculate quantitative properties such as strain level and to minimize the peak-height texture effects in individual !-2! scans. The collection of the large data sets necessary for the analyses is facilitated by use …
A NEW AREA DETECTOR FOR HIGH-SPEED AND HIGH-SENSITIVITY X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIST. Taguchi…An XRD system equipped with a conventional 2-kW X-ray source and a D/teX-25 detector has been used to collect ultra-fast XRD patterns at a maximum speed of 160º2θ per minute, more than 30 times faster than a conventional speed of 5º2θ per minute…
ABNORMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM INSULATORS BOMBARDED WITH LOW ENERGY IONSM. Song, K. Mitsuishi, M. Takeguchi, K. Furuya, R.C. Birtcher…Irradiation with He+, Ga+, Ar+, and Xe+ ions in energy from 5 to 100 keV induces strong characteristic X-ray emission from insulator targets but not from conductive ones. The phenomenon is different from the high energy ion induced X-rays, such …
APPLICATIONS OF X-RAY MICRODIFFRACTION IN THE IMAGING INDUSTRYT.N. Blanton…Case studies are described that demonstrate the use of microXRD for identification of phases, texture, and microstructure morphology of components used in imaging applications. INTRODUCTION Digital imaging is comprised of capture, storage and di…
AVERAGE AND GRAIN SPECIFIC STRAIN OF A COMPOSITE UNDER STRESS USING POLYCHROMATIC MICROBEAM X-RAYSH.A. Bale, J.C. Hanan, N. Tamura, E. Üstündag…In a composite material, however, as the microstructure approaches the fiber diameter, approximations based on a few grains may be misleading. Polychromatic microbeam X-ray diffraction on beamline 7.3.3 at the Advanced Light Source was used to o…
CHARACTER OF THE HIGH-TEMPERATURE STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN CSD2PO4 AND RBD2PO4W. Bronowska…At the transition temperature Ts = 501 K the crystal symmetry rises from monoclinic P21/m to cubic Pm-3m. On the cooling cycle, the high temperature cubic phase of CsD2PO4 persists to the temperature of approx. Ts- 40 deg. The high-temperature p…
CHARACTERIZING PROCESS SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILMS WITH A CONFOCAL MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPEC.M. Sparks, E.P. Hastings, G.J. Havrilla, M. Beckstead…Unlike conventional MXRF, confocal MXRF can depth profile sample layers and reduce spectral background. Non-destructive quantification of the silicon dioxide (SiO2) concentration in hafnium silicate (HfSiO) thin films is an example of one applic…
COMPARISON OF TEXTURE IN COPPER AND ALUMINUM THIN FILMS DETERMINED BY XRD AND EBSDJ. Mueller, D. Balzar, R.H. Geiss, D.T. Read, R.R. Keller…However, due to principle differences in data acquisition these techniques can yield disagreeing results. In this paper, we aim to highlight possible error sources with given examples for aluminum and copper thin films. INTRODUCTION Texture in m…
CONSIDERATIONS FOR COLLECTING RELIABLE XRD RESIDUAL STRESS DATA ACROSS THE FULL 2THETA RANGEA.C. Vermeulen…For reliable results it is crucial that systematic errors are absent. The systematic errors considered in this paper are alignment errors like specimen displacement and incident beam misalignment. Verification measurements on a stress-free sampl…
CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN ELECTRICALLY FATIGUED ACTUATORSJ. Mueller, D. Balzar, S. Hooker…Observed grain sizes were 2.5 m – 4_ m; coherently diffracting domain sizes were 20 nm – 80 nm. A reorientation of c- and a- domains as a result of electrical poling and fatigue was observed, together with changes in the amount of secondary phas…
DATA MINING WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF X-RAY DATAC.K. Lowe-Ma, A.E. Chen, D. Scholl, C.J. Gilmore, R.J. Thatcher, W. Sverdlik…As optimal performance may not be uniformly distributed throughout parameter space, efficient tools for analyzing data and evaluating large areas of compositional or parameter space are needed. Data mining tools enable moving from the statistics…
DETECTION OF VISIBLE AND LATENT FINGERPRINTS BY MICRO-X-RAY FLUORESCENCEC.G. Worley, S.S. Wiltshire, T.C. Miller, G.J. Havrilla, V. Majidi…In the present work, the spatial elemental imaging capabilities of micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) were used to visualize fingerprint patterns based on inorganic elements present in the prints. A major advantage of using MXRF is that the prints …
DETERMINATION OF THE ELEMENT DISTRIBUTION IN SAUROPOD LONG BONES BY MICRO-XRFR. Ferreyro, N. Zoeger, N. Cernohlawek, C. Jokubonis, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, M. Sander, A. Pyzalla…Element distribution maps enable correlations between bone architecture and spatial distribution of the chemical elements. The investigations reveal no significant macroscopic gradients in the element distribution across the fossil bone cross-se…
DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTIC CERTIFIED REFERENCE MATERIALS FOR XRF ANALYSIS (JSAC 0611-0615) CONTAINING PB, CD, CR; PART 1. SAMPLE PREPARATION AND HOMOGENEITY TESTK. Nakano, K. Tsuji, M. Kozaki, K. Kakita, A. Ono, T.Nakamura…Ltd., 2-4 Nakahara shin-machi, Tobata-ku, Kitakyusyu 804-0701 ; Japan 5) The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry, 2-36-2, Nishigotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0031; Japan Abstract New plastic certified reference materials (CRMs) with Pb, Cd …
DEVELOPMENT OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF SEVERELY- PLASTICALLY DEFORMED MG ALLOY, ZK60G.M. Stoica, A.E.Payzant, L. Wu, H.H. Liao, J.E. Spruiell, P.K. Liaw…A larger microstrain was observed in the samples deformed by compression at room temperature, as compared to the samples ECAP-ed at 2600C. Crystallographic texture changes due to uniaxial compression suggested a twinning deformation contribution…
DEVELOPMENTS IN FORMULATION ANALYSES BY POWDER DIFFRACTION ANALYSIST.G. Fawcett, J. Faber, F. Needham, S.N. Kabekkodu, C.R. Hubbard, J.A. Kaduk…In this paper, we will focus on a complimentary development, the growth and application of a comprehensive database based on the Powder Diffraction File™ (PDF®). The PDF® is an edited and standardized combination of several crystallographic data…
ELECTRIC FIELD INFLUENCE ON EMISSION OF CHARACTERISTIC X-RAY FROM AL2O3 TARGETS BOMBARDED BY SLOW XE+ IONSJ.C. Rao, M. Song, K. Mitsuishi, M. Takeguchi, K. Furuya…The electric field influence on emission of the X-rays of constitute elements in the specimens was investigated. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) spectra show that the characteristic X-ray of Al-Kα seems to be depressed by the appl…
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF X-RAY ENERGY SPECTRUM FORMED BY PLANAR WAVEGUIDE-RESONATOR WITH SPECIFIC ELEMENT COMPOSITION REFLECTORSV.K. Egorov, E.V. Egorov…There was tested the features alteration of X-ray spectrum generated by tube with Co-anode in result of the beam formation by the specific planar radiation guide equipped by reflectors with surface layers contained Fe atoms great quantity. The m…
FACTORS AFFECTING IN-LINE PHASE CONTRAST IMAGING WITH A LABORATORY MICROFOCUS X-RAY SOURCEK.L. Kelly, B.K. Tanner…The effect of source size is considered, and by introducing water into the imaging path the influence of water on the phase contrast is determined. The results confirm that good phase contrast images can be achieved using a polychromatic laborat…
FULL SPECTRUM CALCULATIONS OF EDXRF SPECTRAW.T. Elam, B. Shen, B. Scruggs, J. Nicolosi…To evaluate the utility of such methods, we have calculated the full spectra of several compounds covering a wide range of compositions. The calculated spectra are compared directly with measured spectra. They include scattering of the X-ray tub…
FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETER METHOD USING SCATTERING X-RAYS IN X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSISY. Kataoka, N. Kawahara, S. Hara, Y. Yamada, T. Matsuo, M. Mantler…The concept of substituting a compound matrix by a single element of average atomic number has been efficiently applied to the analysis of biological samples, polymers, liquids, and powders where the non-measuring elements were unknown. It was f…
FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETER PROGRAMS: ALGORITHMS FOR THE DESCRIPTION OF K, L AND M SPECTRA OF X-RAY TUBESH. Ebel…The measurements were performed on 23 elements and acceleration voltages from 5kV to 30kV. Continuous spectra are described by a modified Kramers cross section. For absorption correction of continuous and characteristic spectra in the target Lov…
HIGH-RESOLUTION PARALLEL-BEAM POWDER DIFFRACTION MEASUREMENT OF SUB-SURFACE DAMAGE IN ALUMINA-SILICON CARBIDE NANOCOMPOSITEB.K. Tanner, H.Z. Wu, S.G. Roberts…ABSTRACT The sub-surface damage in ground and subsequently annealed alumina/silicon carbide nanocomposite has been studied by analysis of the x-ray diffraction line width as a function of incidence angle. Bragg peak broadening fell as the depth …
IDENTIFICATION OF PAINTING MATERIALS USED FOR MURAL PAINTINGS BY IMAGE ANALYSIS AND XRFS. Shirono, Y.Hayakawa…In this study, we investigated the materials used for the mural paintings in this tumulus directly and non-destructively using a combination of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis for inorganic materials, and image analysis for organic materials. …
IN-SITU OBSERVATION OF CREEP DAMAGE IN AL-AL2O3 MMCS BY SYNCHROTRON X-RAY TOMOGRAPHYA. Pyzalla, B. Camin, B. Lehrer, M. Wichert, A. Koch, K. Zimnik, E. Boller, W. Reimers…Reconstructions of the gauge volume of the creep samples show the particle delamination, particle fracture, void formation and growth at 340°C at various stages of the creep process. KEYWORDS MMC, tomography, creep, damage, X-ray INTRODUCTION Co…
INFLUENCE OF GROWTH INTERRUPTION ON THE FORMATION OF SOLID-STATE INTERFACESI. Busch, M. Krumrey, J. Stümpel…For that purpose a series of different samples has been manufactured with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The introduction of growth interruptions of 50 s after the deposition of the layer leads to a change in the morphological properties of the i…
INVESTIGATING THE NATURE OF LINE BROADENING IN ELECTROCHEMICALLY DELITHIATED LI-XMMNRXWNIRX8CORX-OMP.S. Whitfield, S. Niketic, Y. Le Page, I.J. Davidson…Previous hypotheses attributing the phenomena to stacking faults can not explain all of the broadening features, as some of them (e.g. 003) disobey the selection rules expected of stacking faults in a cubic close-packed system (H-K = 3N ± 1). An…
INVESTIGATION OF LATERAL STRUCTURED INTERFACES WITH DXRS AND SPMI. Busch, G. Dai, J. Stümpel…The reciprocal scattering image (space map) contains the morphological structure of the interfaces of the system and provides statistical values of the critical parameters, such as the roughness σ and the correlation length ξ. With the measureme…
LABORATORY SYSTEM FOR X-RAY NANOTOMOGRAPHYA. Sasov…This spatial resolution in the volume terms is equal or better than can be achieved in synchrotron tomography, 5 orders better than in existing laboratory instruments and 10-12 orders better in comparison to clinical CT. The instrument is built …
LOBSTER EYE OPTICS FOR COLLECTING RADIATION OF A LASERPLASMA SOFT X-RAY SOURCE BASED ON A GAS PUFF TARGETA. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, R. Rakowski, M. Szczurek, L. Pína, L. Švéda, A. Inneman…Soft X-rays in the wavelength range from about 3 nm to 20 nm were produced as a result of irradiation of a double- stream gas puff target with laser pulses of energy 0.8 J and time duration of about 3 ns. The spectra and absolute energies of sof…
MEASUREMENT AND MODELING OF INTERNAL STRESSES AT MICROSCOPIC AND MESOSCOPIC LEVELS USING MICRO RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY AND X-RAY DIFFRACTIONB. Benedikt, M. Lewis, P. Rangaswamy…Two types of strain sensors embedded in either chopped graphite fiber/epoxy matrix composite (MRS) or unidirectional graphite fiber/polyimide matrix composite (XRD) were investigated. For XRD measurements, the sensors were in the form of spheric…
MEASUREMENT OF STRAIN AND LATTICE TILT AT THE MARGINS OF THIN FILM ISLANDS ON SINGLE-CRYSTAL SUBSTRATES BY DOUBLE-CRYSTAL X-RAY TOPOGRAPHYP.M. Adams…Strain and deformation are concentrated along the film edges and were recorded as contrast in double-crystal X-ray topograph (DXRT) images. The contrast in the DXRT images was measured and was related to lattice deformation by means of the X-ray…
MEDICAL X-RAY IMAGING, CURRENT STATUS AND SOME FUTURE CHALLENGESE.L. Ritman…Major technical advances over the years, culminating in helical scanning, multi slice, x-ray computed tomography, can now provide ~ 0.5 mm3 resolution 3D images of the spatial distribution of tissue attenuation coefficients of an entire adult hu…
MICROTOMOGRAPHY OF AMORPHOUS METAL DURING THERMO-PLASTIC FOAMINGJ.C. Hanan, C. Veazey, M.D. Demetriou, F. DeCarlo, S. Thompson…A new method to produce metallic foam through a thermo-plastic expansion process has been discovered and characterized with microtomography. The new foaming process enables porosities unachievable through traditional metallurgical processes. The…
MONTE-CARLO MODELING OF SILICON X-RAY DETECTORSB. Cross, G. Bale, B. Lowe, R. Sareen…ABSTRACT A new 3-D Monte-Carlo code, X-Tracker, was developed to model internal events that occur as X-ray photons are absorbed within Si(Li) detectors. The goal was to model the performance of state-of-the-art detectors, including peak shapes, …
MULTI-MODE X-RAY STUDY OF SODIUM AND MAGNESIUM SULFATE ATTACK ON PORTLAND CEMENT PASTEN.N. Naik, A.C. Jupe, S.R. Stock, A.P. Wilkinson, P.L. Lee, K.E. Kurtis…However, despite over six decades of study, considerable uncertainty remains in optimally selecting and proportioning materials for sulfate resistance, and current understanding of the actual mechanisms of degradation in sulfate environments rem…
MULTI-SPECTRAL XRF COUNTING: SQUEEZE TWICE AS MUCH INFORMATION FROM YOUR DETECTORW.K. Warburton, P. Grudberg, J. Harris, G. Roach, B. Cross…Improving energy resolution ΔE helps by increasing peak/background ratio and providing a more accurate estimate of the background but also reduces counting statistics due to increased pileup losses. Time variant filtering techniques have not bee…
NEW OBSERVATIONS ON LIBR RELEASING AGENT LAYER IN FUSION BEADSF. Claisse…The composition of the layer is not pure LiBr but a mixture of bromides of Li and metallic ions from the sample. A small quantity of bromides are present inside the bead as droplets. Introduction For years, XRF analysts add lithium bromide (and …
OPTIMAL DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION GRATING FOR X-RAY TALBOT INTERFEROMETERW. Yashiro, A. Masada, A. Momose…Shape parameters of an amplitude grating used in XTI strongly affect the effi- ciency. We calculated efficiencies assuming rectangular and trapezoidal patterns for an ab- sorption grating. As a result, a rectangular absorption grating of a duty …
PARAMETER STUDIES FOR AN OPTIMIZED XRF-DETERMINATION OF PB IN BONEN. Cernohlawek, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. Zoeger…The intention of this work was to study the feasibility of in vivo L-shell XRF measurements of Pb in bone using X-ray tubes as excitation sources. Parameter studies using direct tube excitation with various anode materials (Mo and W) and filters…
PHASE IMAGING WITH AN X-RAY TALBOT INTERFEROMETERA. Momose, W. Yashiro, Y. Takeda, Y. Suzuki, T. Hattori…JASRI/SPring-8,Mikazuki, Hyogo 679-5198, Japan. dLaboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Kouto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1205, Japan. ABSTRACT X-ray Talbot interferometry (XTI) is described as a novel ph…
POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION DETECTION OF CRYSTALLINE PHASES IN AMORPHOUS PHARMACEUTICALSB.A. Sarsfield, M. Davidovich, S. Desikan, M. Fakes, S. Futernik, J.L. Hilden, J.S. Tan, S. Yin, G. Young, B. Vakkalagadda, K. Volk…Materials in the amorphous phase are less thermodynamically stable than any crystalline form, leading to a tendency for the amorphous materials to transform to a known or potentially unknown crystalline phase. The time scale for any transformati…
QUANTITATIVE ENERGY-DISPERSIVE ELECTRON PROBE X-RAY MICROANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL PARTICLESC.-U. Ro…The low-Z particle EPMA allows the quantitative determination of concentrations of low-Z elements such as C, N, and O, as well as higher-Z elements that can be analyzed by conventional energy- dispersive EPMA. The quantitative determination of l…
QUANTITATIVE RIETVELD ANALYSIS OF HYDRATED CEMENTITIOUS SYSTEMSL.D. Mitchell, P.S. Whitfield, J.C. Margeson…In order to obtain true quantitative results, the amorphous contents were determined by the addition of an internal standard. The amorphous content of the starting calcium trisilicate was found to be approximately 21-22 wt%, in close agreement w…
QUANTITATIVE TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF GRANULAR MATERIAL CALCULATED FROM X-RAY PCT IMAGESM.A. Knackstedt, C.H. Arns, F. Bauget, A. Sakellariou, T.J. Senden, A.P. Sheppard, R.M. Sok…To enhance and add predictive power to the collected data, various analysis techniques have been developed. In this paper, transport properties calculated directly from the pore space morphology are presented for 36 porous granular specimens. Re…
RESIDUAL STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN GTA SPOT WELDED TI6AL4V DISKSJ. Sariel, I. Dahan, R. Reuven, M. Szanto, A. Stern…Disks of three thicknesses, 6.5, 8.5 and 10.5 mm were welded using several currents. The results were also compared to those obtained by the Hole- Drilling (HD) method, and by numerical simulations. The distributions obtained by all three method…
RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT OF CEMENTITE PHASE IN PLASTICALLY DEFORMED CARBON STEELSY. Horimoto, L. Che, M. Gotoh, Y. Hirose…For globular structure specimens, X-ray stress measurements of cementite were realized after pretreatments on them; Compressive residual stresses were observed in ferrite and tensile residual stresses in cementite; The residual stress in cementi…
RIETVELD TEXTURE ANALYSIS BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTION OF .HIGHLY ABSORBING MATERIALSH.M. Volz, S.C. Vogel, C.T. Necker, J.A. Roberts, A.C. Lawson, D.J. Williams, L.L. Daemen, L. Lutterotti, J. Pehl…Diffraction data were collected on the neutron powder diffractometer HIPPO at LANSCE from dysprosium and erbium, which are moderate to strong absorbers for thermal neutrons with absorption cross-sections of 159 barns for Er and 994 barns for Dy …
TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF RESIDUAL STRESS IN TITANIUM NITRIDE COATINGS ON HAYNES 188 SUPERALLOYS.H. Ferguson, H.W. King…In the as-coated condition the TiN films have a pronounced [111] orientation texture and a compressive room temperature stress of -10.5 GPa. After heating for periods of 1h between 450 and 800 °C, the compressive residual stress was irreversibly…
THERMAL LATTICE EXPANSION IN EPITAXIAL SRTIO3(100) ON SI(100)D.E. McCready, Y. Liang, V. Shutthanandan, C. Wang, S. Thevuthasan…The SrTiO3 layer thickness (~400 Å) was determined a priori by ex situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR). In addition, the SrTiO3(100) film was further characterized before and after thermal treatment by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy in channeli…
TIME-RESOLVED X-RAY IMAGING IN STUDIES OF ADVANCED ALLOY SOLIDIFICATION PROCESSESR.H. Mathiesen, L. Arnberg…These self-assembly solidification structures evolve in complex processes determined by the transport of heat and mass to and from the different constituents. The transport processes are also influenced and complicated by interacting mechanisms …
TIME-RESOLVED Μ-XRF AND ELEMENTAL MAPPING OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIALSK. Tsuji, K. Tsutsumimoto, K. Nakano, K. Tanaka, A. Okhrimovskyy, Y. Konishi, X. Ding…Xin Jie Kou Wai Da Jie; Beijing 100875; China Telephone: 62207171; E-mail: xld@ht.rol.cn.net Abstract We have developed a micro-XRF instrument using a polycapillary x-ray lens. In addition, a time-resolved MCA (multi channel analyzer) was instal…
UNTANGLING CATION ORDERING IN COMPLEX LITHIUM BATTERY CATHODE MATERIALS – SIMULTANEOUS REFINEMENT OF X-RAY, NEUTRON AND RESONANT SCATTERING DATAP.S. Whitfield, I.J. Davidson, L.M.D. Cranswick, I.P. Swainson, P.W. Stephens…Combining the information in X-ray and neutron data in simultaneous refinements has historically been a powerful tool. However, increasingly complex compositions require more information and element contrast than two datasets can provide. This p…
USE OF THE MONTE CARLO SIMULATION CODE CEARXRF FOR THE EDXRF INVERSE PROBLEMR.P. Gardner, F. Li, W. Guo…Then the Monte Carlo – Library Least-Squares (MCLLS) approach is used. This approach consists of using a forward Monte Carlo code (CEARXRF) that is capable of simulating the complete non-linear pulse-height spectral response of any EDXRF system….
X-RAY AND NEUTRON DIFFRACTION OF ERDK POWDERS B FILMSM.A. Rodriguez, J.F. Browning, C.S. Frazer, R.G. Tissot, S.C. Vogel, D.J. Williams, A. Llobet…Rietveld refinement results demonstrated sensitivity to deuterium site occupancy and distribution within the fluorite-type lattice. Powder refinements showed that the presence of 10% D at the octahedral site caused detectable contraction in the …
X-RAY BACKSCATTER IMAGING: PHOTOGRAPHY THROUGH BARRIERSJ. Callerame…In contrast to more commonly used transmission images, backscatter imaging involves positioning both source and detection apparatus on only one side of a target object. This presents the user with inspection opportunities in situations that may …
X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING AND ANALYSIS FOR BASIC RESEARCHJ.H. Dunsmuir, S. Bennett, L. Fareria, A. Mingino, M. Sansone…Recent advances in source and detector design have produced conventional x-ray source instruments with comparable spatial resolution but with lower throughput and without element specific imaging[2]. Both classes of instrument produce 3D images …
X-RAY PHYSICS IN PLASTICS: LOW ABSORPTION KEEPS PHOTON IN PLAYJ.-C.A. Lee, P.J. Ramadge, B. Hubbard-Nelson, D.I. Feinstein…Because polymers are mainly composed of light elements, the x-ray mass attenuation depth is deeper. Polymer analysis requires a physical model with greater fidelity than Sherman’s model: 1) infinite sample thickness is no longer valid, 2) the inci…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2004 – VOL48

A MONTE CARLO CODE FOR SIMULATION OF PULSE PILE-UP SPECTRAL DISTORTION IN PULSE-HEIGHT MEASUREMENTW. Guo, R.P. Gardner, F. Li…Experimental verification was carried out by measuring an Fe-55 spectrum with a Si(Li) X-ray spectrometer. Based on the spectrum measured at low counting rate, which is considered to be the “true” spectrum with no pulse pile-up distortion, the p…
AN IN SITU HIGH-TEMPERATURE X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDY OF PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN SILVER BEHENATET.N. Blanton, S. Zdzieszynski, M. Nicholas, S. Misture…In the absence of development chemistry silver behenate exhibits four phase transformations when heated from room temperature to 200 ºC. Combining XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, the phase transformation temperatures and…
BAYESIAN ANALYSIS OF CERIA NANOPARTICLES FROM LINE PROFILE DATAN.Armstrong, A. Dowd, J.P. Cline, W. Kalceff…The analysis is in general agreement with transmission electron microscopy results, while demonstrating the impor- tance of appropriate a priori information needed in the method. The analysis also identifies other microstructural effects, such a…
CHANGES IN ELASTIC-STRAIN PROFILES AROUND A CRACK TIP DURING TENSILE LOADING AND UNLOADING CYCLESY. Sun, H. Choo, P.K. Liaw, Y.L. Lu, B. Yang, D.W. Brown…Spatially-resolved strain measurements were performed on a 316 LN stainless steel to determine the in-plane (parallel to the loading direction) lattice-strain profiles ahead of the crack tip under a constant tensile load. The strain scanning was…
DEVELOPMENT OF A MONTE CARLO – LIBRARY LEAST-SQUARES (MCLLS) CODE PACKAGE FOR THE EDXRF INVERSE PROBLEMR.P. Gardner, W. Guo…It consists of a linear library least-squares (LLS) code and a comprehensive Monte Carlo code named CEARXRF that is capable of calculating the unknown sample spectrum, all the elemental library spectra in the sample, and the differential operato…
DEVELOPMENT OF XRD IN EL SALVADORE. de Henriquez…Interpretations of permeability and temperature have given a broader outlook of the geothermal system. XRD technique was not limited to the geothermal industry. Samples from different industries are being accepted, such as solid particles in air…
DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF ORDER-DISORDER AT HIGH PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURESJ.B. Parise, S.M. Antao, C.D. Martin, W. Crichton…European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B. P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble, France BSTRCT Recent developments at synchrotron X-ray beamlines now allow collection of data suitable for structure determination and Rietveld structure refinement at high pr…
DISLOCATION DENSITIES AND CHARACTER EVOLUTION IN COPPER DEFORMED BY ROLLING UNDER LIQUID NITROGEN FROM X-RAY PEAK PROFILE ANALYSISI. Dragomir-Cernatescu, M. Gheorghe, N. Thadhani, R.L. Snyder…The crystallite size distribution and defects evolution were determined as a function of different reduction levels (e.g. 67%, 74%, 87%, and 97%). By using the Multiple Whole-Profile (MWP) fitting procedure the Fourier transforms of the experime…
ELEMENTAL IMAGING FOR PHARMACEUTICAL TABLET FORMULATION ANALYSIS BY MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENCET. C. Miller, G.J. Havrilla…Recently imaging techniques, such as Raman, near-IR, and fluorescence imaging, have become popular for “visualization” of pharmaceutical formulations, allowing for spatial and chemical composition information to be obtained simultaneously. These…
ELEMENTAL MAPPING IN SLICES OF HUMAN BRAIN BY SR MU-XRFN. Zoeger, C.Streli, P. Wobrauschek, C. Jokubonis, G. Pepponi, P. Roschger, S. Bohic, W. Osterode…To determine the local distribution of lead (Pb) and other trace elements, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) measurements have been performed, using a microbeam setup and highest flux synchrotron radiation. Experiments have been carried out …
ETCHING METHODS FOR IMPROVING SURFACE IMPERFECTIONS OF DIAMONDS USED FOR X-RAY MONOCHROMATORSJ.A. Maj, A.T. Macrander, G.J. Waldschmidt, S.F. Krasnicki, Y. Zhong, R. Khachatryan, Y.S. Chu, R. Erck, J. Woodford…However, due to imperfections in the diamond, the rocking curves of diamond crystals are wider (e.g, 30%) than the theoretical values. Proper etching of the diamond can reduce the effects of imperfections. We explore four etching techniques usin…
FAST IN-SITU X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS DURING QUENCHING OF A BALL BEARING STEELT.K. Hirsch, A. da S. Rocha…Sample temperatures up to 900°C were reached with a specially-designed furnace, in which fast cooling of sample is executed by gas quenching. Stress development during quench- ing followed the expected transformation behavior for an AISI 52100 b…
FATIGUE-INDUCED PHASE FORMATION AND ITS DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR IN A COBALT-BASED SUPERALLOYM.L. Benson, T.A. Saleh, P.K. Liaw, H. Choo, D.W. Brown, M.R. Daymond, X.-L. Wang, A.D. Stoica, R.A. Buchanan, D.L. Klarstrom…Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA 3. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA 4. Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen’s …
FIELD DEPLOYMENT OF A PORTABLE XRD/XRF INSTRUMENT ON MARS ANALOG TERRAINP. Sarrazin, D. Blake, S. Feldman, S. Chipera, D. Vaniman, D. Bish…A portable CheMin prototype was built to test the capability of the instrument for remote in-situ mineralogical characterization of geological materials. The instrument was successfully deployed at a variety of Mars analog sites in Death Valley,…
GETTING THE HOT STRUCTURESK.F. Kelton, A.K. Gangopadhyay…These studies have led to new insights into the liquid state and have revealed how local order in the liquid can dictate phase formation. In this article, levitation techniques are briefly discussed, focusing most on electrostatic levitation. Re…
IMPROVING ENERGY STABILITY IN THE NIST MICROCALORIMETER X-RAY DETECTORT. Jach, J.A. Small, D.E. Newbury…We report on some sources of energy scale drift in microcalorimeter X-ray detectors and the manner in which they have been addressed. Previously observed drifts of >10 eV/h have been reduced to 1-2 eV/h. This improved stability has resulted in t…
INVESTIGATION OF THE MICRO STRUCTURE OF ENERGETIC CRYSTALS BY MEANS OF X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTIONM. Herrmann, H. Fietzek…Therefore an approach is made to quantify and characterize of the ener- getic powders RDX and HMX using X-ray diffraction. The mechanical properties of these cyclic nitramines are supposed to be dominated by different defect mechanisms – deform…
MEASUREMENT OF THE SILICON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION IN HAFNIUM SILICATE GATE DIELECTRICS WITH A TXRFC.M. Sparks, P. Lysaght, T. Rhoad…This allows for the introduction of a physically thicker film with lower leakage current and with capacitance equivalent to a thinner (1.0 nm and below) SiO2 layer [1-3]. Although binary metal oxide films such as HfO2 and ZrO2 exhibit higher per…
MICRO XRF OF LIGHT ELEMENTS USING A POLYCAPILLARY LENS AND AN ULTRA THIN WINDOW SILICON DRIFT DETECTOR INSIDE A VACUUM CHAMBERP. Wobrauschek, B. Frank, N. Zoeger, C. Streli, N. Cernohlawek, C. Jokubonis, H. Hoefler…Though for some applications (e.g.: biological- and geological samples, samples from art and archeology) the extension to light elements is of great interest. Therefore µ-XRF measurements using a polycapillary lens mounted inside a vacuum chambe…
MICRO-XRF INSTRUMENT DEVELOPED IN COMBINATION WITH ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPEK. Tsuji, T. Emoto, Y. Matsuoka, Y. Miyatake, T. Nagamura, X. Ding…Xin Jie Kou Wai Da Jie, Beijing 100875, China ABSTRACT A new micro-XRF instrument was developed in combination with an atomic force microscope (AFM). A small pinhole of 5 or 10 µm was made on the AFM cantilever. The center of the micro X-ray bea…
MINIATURE X-RAY TUBES UTILIZING CARBON-NANOTUBE-BASED COLD CATHODESA. Reyes-Mena, C. Jensen, E. Bard, D.C. Turner, K.G. Erdmann, Q. Qiu, B. Gao, J. Lu, O. Zhou…MINIATURE X-RAY TUBES UTILIZING CARBON-NANOTUBE- BASED COLD CATHODES A. Reyes-Mena, Charles Jensen, Erik Bard, D. Clark Turner and K. G. Erdmann MOXTEK, Inc., Orem, UT 84057 Qi Qiu, Bo Gao, Jianping Lu and Otto Zhou XINTEK, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC…
NEW CORRECTION PROCEDURE FOR X-RAY SPECTROSCOPIC FLUORESCENCE DATA: SIMULATIONS AND EXPERIMENTJ.M. Ablett, J.C. Woicik, C.C. Kao…In the dilute limit, and for thin films, the X-ray fluorescence signal is directly proportional to the atomic sub-shell absorption coefficient. However, for concentrated samples, the well-documented self-absorption effect often leads to the seve…
NON-LINEAR 2 THETA-SIN2 PSI DIAGRAM BY SHOTPEENING ON SPRING STEELT. Sakakibara, Y. Sato…It is commonly known that a material under directional deformation exhibits non-linear 2θ-sin2ψ diagram (ψ-split ) due to the triaxial stress state. In this study, the residual stress distributions of spring materials deformed by shot peening at…
ON THE INFLUENCE OF GENERATOR AND DETECTOR SETTINGS IN X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTOMETRYM.J. Fransen…With the introduction of photon-counting, 1- and 2-dimensional X-ray detectors, this effect has become more prominent than with the traditional diffraction geometry. In this paper, the influence of generator and detector settings on the fluoresc…
POWDER DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC CEMENTS: ASTM RIETVELD ROUND ROBIN RESULTS ON PRECISIONP. Stutzman…The ASTM C01.23 Compositional Analysis subcommittee developed test method C 1365 Standard Test for ‘Determination of the Proportion of Phases in Portland Cement and Portland-Cement Clinker Using X-Ray Powder Diffraction Analysis.’ A round-robin …
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF CALCIUM OXIDE DESICCANT CONVERSION TO CALCIUM HYDROXIDE USING X-RAY DIFFRACTIONT.N. Blanton, C.L. Barnes…When exposed to water, CaO converts to Ca(OH)2. X-ray diffraction techniques have been developed to study the conversion process and quantify the amount of CaO/Ca(OH)2 in powder and dispersed samples using the reference intensity ratio (RIR) met…
RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENTS OF CAST ALUMINUM ENGINE BLOCKS USING DIFFRACTIOND.J. Wiesner, T.R. Watkins, T.M. Ely, S. Spooner, C.R. Hubbard, J.C. Williams…Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 ABSTRACT Residual stresses and strains in as-cast and annealed aluminum engine blocks were mapped in the main web area above the bearing split using diffraction. Automa…
RIETVELD PROCESSING OF PHASES IN HIGHLY TEXTURED REFRACTORY STEELSJ.L. Garin, R.L. Mannheim…These kinds of alloys usually contain strong preferred orientations due to dendritic solidification of the austenitic and ferritic solid solution phases, which must be taken into account whether accurate processing of powder diffraction data is …
SMALL-ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING TO DISCERN MICROSTRUCTURE OF SEMICRYSTALLINE POLYANHYDRIDES FOR DRUG DELIVERYM.J. Kipper, S. Seifert, P. Thiyagarajan, B. Narasimhan…Cass Ave., Argonne IL, 60439. 3Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, Argonne National. Cass Ave., Argonne IL, 60439. ABSTRACT Polyanhydride copolymers based on 1,6-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane (CPH) and sebacic acid (SA) are bioerodible, semicrystalline…
SPATIALLY-TRANSIENT STRESS EFFECTS IN THIN FILMS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTIONC.E. Murray, C.C. Goldsmith, I.C. Noyan…For cases in which the material properties and/or the stress state are not homogeneous, traditional approaches may yield erroneous stress results. On the other hand, with proper care, relevant mechanical information about the system can be obtai…
STRESSES IN SHAPE MEMORY POLYMER-MATRIX NANOCOMPOSITES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONSD. Balzar, G. Stefanic, K. Gall, M.L. Dunn, Y. Liu…After 50% compression of the composite material at 25 °C, the SiC particles exhibit a compressive stress, which is almost completely released during heated recovery at 120 °C. The residual stresses in SiC hexagonal (6H) phase were estimated thro…
TEMPERATURE EXPERIMENTS FOR IMPROVED ACCURACY IN THE CALCULATION OF POLYAMIDE-11CRYSTALLINITY BY X-RAY DIFFRACTIONP. Ricou, E. Pinel, N. Juhasz…Rilsan® Polyamide-11 (PA-11), produced by Arkema Inc., is a semi-crystalline polymer with an eleven-carbon repeat unit belonging to the general class of Nylon polymers. This material presents the peculiarity of having a smectic phase along with …
THE DIRECT DETERMINATION OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION DATA FROM SPECIFIC DEPTHSA. Broadhurst, K.D. Rogers, T.W. Lowe, D.W. Lane…A series of traditional data collections with varying angles of incidence are required, and the X-ray diffraction data arising from specific depths will be calculated by the transformation of these measured, angle-dependent spectra. These may th…
THE X-RAY RESPONSE OF SILICON DRIFT DETECTORST. Eggert…The calculations are in good agreement with the measurements for secondary electron charge cloud widths σsec of (85±7) nm below and (128±10) nm above 1.83 keV. The main background contribution arises from thermalized electrons escaping the activ…
TOWARDS FAST RECIPROCAL SPACE MAPPINGJ.F. Woitok, A. Kharchenko…The quality of the data benefits from the detector’s unique properties such as a high local linearity range and high dynamic range. This paper describes maps of symmetri- cal and asymmetrical reflections taken on different kinds of samples. A qu…
TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS USING A BENCHTOP TXRF-SPECTROMETERH. Stosnach…By analysing various heavy metals in raw and digested sewage as well as mercury in recycling glass, the suitability of the TXRF system for these kinds of applications could be proven. Based on this data, the benefits, disadvantages, and restrict…
TWO-DIMENSIONAL MAPPING OF RESIDUAL STRAINS IN 6061-T6 ALUMINUM ALLOY FRICTION STIR WELDSW. Woo, H. Choo, D.W. Brown, Z. Feng, P.K. Liaw, S.A. David, C.R. Hubbard…Three different weld specimens were prepared from a 6061-T6 aluminum alloy with the purpose of separating the effects of the frictional heat and plastic deformation on the residual strain distribution and the angular distortion in the weld plate…
VIBRATING SAMPLE HOLDER FOR XRD ANALYSIS WITH MINIMAL SAMPLE PREPARATIONP. Sarrazin, S. Chipera, D. Bish, D. Blake, D. Vaniman…The technique relies on vibrations generated in a sample holder to create movement of the powdered sample in the absence of macroscopic movement of the sample holder itself. The major benefits over conventional sample handling strategies are: 1)…
X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETRY STUDIES AND LATTICE PARAMETER CALCULATION ON KNO3-NH4NO3 SOLID SOLUTIONSW.-M. Chien, D. Chandra, J. Franklin, C.J. Rawn, A.K. Helmy…Ammonium nitrate (AN) is of great use for gas generators of automobile air bag systems. The X-ray diffraction results showed the single (AN) phase III from 5% to 20% KNO3 in NH4NO3 and up to 373 K, which is the important temperature range for th…
XRF ANALYSIS OF HARMFUL METALS COLLECTED ONTO FILTERS AS THIN LAYERS FROM WORKPLACE AIR: INTER-LABORATORY EXERCISER.D. Foster…Sets of prepared filter standards were used to “transport” a master calibration established on an X-ray spectrometer at the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) to a wide range of makes and types of X-ray spectrometers in over 20 participant labor…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2003 – VOL47

1- AND 2-DIMENSIONAL DETECTION SYSTEMS AND THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE FLUORESCENCE IN X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETRYM.J. Fransen…In this paper, the influence of the chosen X-ray optical geometry on the fluorescent background is determined experimentally from diffractograms recorded on a series of 10 samples with elements ranging from Ti to Ga. The samples were measured wi…
A PHOTONEUTRON SOURCE FOR BULK MATERIAL STUDIESM.A. Reda, J.F. Harmon…We suggest a photonuclear-based neutron source, using an electron linear accelerator, which may provide an inexpensive method to perform neutron scattering and diffraction experiments. This paper reports the results of calculations using Monte C…
A BEHAVIOR OF ELASTIC AND PLASTIC STRAIN FOR (A + G) DUAL PHASE STAINLESS STEELS IN ROTATING BENDING TESTH. Hirose, M. Gotoh, T. Yano, T. Sasaki…It has good resistance to corrosion and oxidation. Therefore, this material should be use for the shaft of a car, the screws holding a ship together, and so on. In this study, the effect of residual stress and plastic deformation on fatigue stre…
A CLOSE LOOK AT ELECTROLYTIC MANGANESE DIOXIDE (EMD) AND THE G-MNO2 & E-MNO2 PHASES USING RIETVELD MODELINGD.E. Simon, R.W. Morton, J.J. Gislason…However, a Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) study of EMD observed only γ- MnO2 structure as revealed by atom planes with a 0.4 nanometer spacing along with crystal twinning. Rietveld refinement results of EMD x-ray diffraction patterns ind…
A NEW ANALYSIS METHOD FOR TWO-DIMENSIONAL X-RAY DATAJ.C. Hanan, E. Ustundag, J.D. Almer…One challenge is obtaining strain results from Debye-Scherrer rings originating from a few grains of material. In addition, results are typically desired from multiple rings over hundreds or thousands of exposures. Current two-dimensional analys…
A PLUG-IN PROGRAM TO PERFORM HANAWALT OR FINK SEARCH-INDEXING USING ORGANICS ENTRIES IN THE ICDD PDF-4/ORGANICS 2003 DATABASEJ. Faber, C.A. Weth, J. Bridge…The plug-in provides an adjustable search window and match window to account for experimental errors. Both Hanawalt [1,2] and Fink [3] search methods are incorporated. In this paper, we report search-indexing results obtained with the new PDF-4 …
ACCURACY OF STANDARDLESS FP ANALYSIS OF BULK AND THIN FILM SAMPLES USING A NEW ATOMIC DATABASEW.T. Elam, R.B. Shen, B. Scruggs, J. Nicolosi…The database is a recent compilation by Elam, Ravel, and Sieber that is intended for X-ray spectroscopy. We have extended this work to thin films and multiple layer coatings. Significant improvements in accuracy are obtained with the use of upda…
ADVANCES IN QUANTITATIVE XRD ANALYSIS FOR CLINKER, CEMENTS AND CEMENTITIOUS ADDITIONSG. Walenta, T. Fullmann…Thanks to the development of stable-functioning software and the use of high-performance detectors, a quantitative phase analysis by X-ray, including sample preparation, measurement and evaluation, can be performed in fewer than ten minutes. Thi…
ANALYSIS OF ART OBJECTS AND OTHER DELICATE SAMPLES: IS XRF REALLY NON-DESTRUCTIVE?M. Mantler, J. Klikovits…This study is related to paintings and illuminated manu- scripts, where the analytes are often inorganic pigments embedded into organic matrices such as fabrics (canvases), paper or parchment, binders, and varnish. We found that a typical measur…
APPLICATIONS OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION IN CONSERVATION SCIENCE AND ARCHAEOMETRYM.-C. Corbeil…Jordan; the yellow compound pararealgar (As4S4), which was identified for the first time in a painting; and magnesium cobalt arsenate, a violet pigment found in numerous paintings. X-ray diffraction also helped answer questions related to degrad…
APPLICATIONS OF X-RAY STRESS MEASUREMENT FOR INTERFACE AREA OF NI3AL SYSTEM INTERMETALLIC COMPOUND COATINGT. Murotani, T. Yano, H. Hirose, A. Ikenaga…China **Graduate School of Kanazawa University, Kakumamachi Kanawzawa Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan *** Kinjo University Research Center, Kasamamachi 1200, Matto Ishikawa 924-8511, Japan **** Graduate school of Engineering Osaka Prefecture University…
CARBON-NANOTUBE FIELD EMISSION X-RAY TUBE FOR SPACE EXPLORATION XRD/XRF INSTRUMENTP. Sarrazin, D. Blake, L. Delzeit, M. Meyyappan, B. Boyer, S. Snyder, B. Espinosa…Existing miniature X-ray tubes are limited by inefficient thermionic electron sources. We have investigated the potential of carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters for improving the efficiency and durability of miniature X-ray tubes. CNT field emi…
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EVOLUTIONARY ASPECTS OF GREAT WHITE SHARK TEETH BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION METHODS AND OTHER SUPPORTING TECHNIQUESM. Kesmez, J. Lyon, D.L. Cocke, J. Westgate, H. McWhinney, T.L. Grady…Grady# ABSTRACT In a research program to explore evolutionary aspects of structural changes in elasmobranch teeth, a natural composite material, dentine and enamel sections of fossilized Great White shark teeth (ranging in age from 4, 12 and 40 …
CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR MINIATURE LOW-POWER X-RAY TUBESA. Reyes-Mena, M. Moras, C. Jensen, S.D. Liddiard, D.C. Turner…The use of this chamber is an innovative approach that allows rapid imaging of the electron beam spot on the anode, as well as the spectral characterization of the tube. The beam- spot dimensions and location can be measured at several high-volt…
COINCIDENCE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE (CXRF) SPECTROMETRY FOR IN VIVO QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF BONE LEADW. Guo, R.P. Gardner…Based on the physics of atomic transition, certain fractions of the characteristic K-series X-rays and L-series X-rays are in true coincidence. With an advanced CAMAC data acquisition system, experimental results are presented and preliminary qu…
COMBINED X-RAY/NEUTRON RIETVELD REFINEMENT OF LN-DOPED PZT PEROVSKITESM.A. Rodriguez, T.J. Boyle, B.A. Tuttle…Resulting refined structural parameters indicated that the lattice parameters and volume changes in the tetragonal perovskite unit cell were consistent with A and/or B-site doping of the structure. Ce doping is inconsistent with respect to its r…
DESIGN OF EDXRF EQUIPMENT FOR THE NONDESTRUCTIVE STUDY OF PRINTSM. Ardid, J.L. Ferrero, C. Roldan, D. Juanes, J.L. Lluch, R. Vives, P. Punter…Parque Tecnológico. CEEI-Valencia. Centro de Negocios. C/ Benjamin Franklin, 12 E-46980 Paterna (Spain) 3Departament de Física Aplicada. Escola Politècnica Superior de Gandia. Universitat Politècnica de València.Cra. Nazaret-Oliva s/n. E-46730 (…
DETERMINING OPERATING LIFETIME OF LANDING WHEEL HUBS WITH PRD PORTABLE DIFFRACTOMETRA.V. Lutsao, B.N. Kodess, A.V. Kotelkin, S.A. Kononogov, D.B. Matveev, V. Mozalyov, A.D. Zvonkov…The example of residual stress determination in the landing wheel hubs with different service life (take-off-landing numbers) are presented. The assessment of the durability is based on the results of residual stress determination. INTRODUCTION …
DETERMINING X-RAY DIFFRACTION DATA AT VARYING DEPTHS – A PRELIMINARY THEORETICAL APPROACHA. Broadhurst, K.D. Rogers, T.W. Lowe, D.W. Lane…The method is non-destructive and requires only a series of traditional data collections, where the incident angle is varied. The measured spectra are transformed to give calculated X-ray diffraction data arising from different depths. This is i…
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LABORATORY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE HOLOGRAPHY EQUIPMENTY. Takahashi, K. Hayashi, E. Matsubara…Synchrotron radiation (SR) has been mainly used for the measurements because of extremely weak signals which are about 0.3 % of isotropic fluorescent radiation. The measurements limited to the use of a SR source clearly hinder from increasing th…
DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW POSITRON LIFETIME SPECTROSCOPY TECHNIQUE FOR DEFECT CHARACTERIZATION IN THICK MATERIALSF.A. Selim, D.P. Wells, J.F. Harmon, J.R. Williams…In those measurements, the residual stresses were reflected in the line shape parameters of the 511 keV annihilation peak. However, since positron lifetime spectroscopy is a powerful tool to distinguish between different types of defects, such a…
DEVELOPMENT OF AN ASTM STANDARD TEST METHOD ON X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC CEMENTSP. Stutzman…The ASTM C01 (Cement) Committee formed a task group to investigate quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analysis that resulted in the ASTM C 1365 standard test for X-ray powder diffraction of portland cement clinker and portland cement. Estimat…
EVALUATING EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND TECHNIQUES IN X-RAY DIFFRACTION USING 280,000 DATA SETS IN THE POWDER DIFFRACTION FILET.G. Fawcett, S.N. Kabekkodu, J. Faber, F. Needham, F. McClune…The PDF is available in two products, PDF-4/Full File and PDF-4/Organics, which allow users to access and query over 150 million filled entry fields. An editorial database is used to generate the commercial products that contain tables of experi…
FINDING DESCRIPTORS USEFUL FOR DATA MINING IN THE CHARACTERIZATION DATA OF CATALYSTSC.K. Lowe-Ma, A.R. Drews, A.E. Chen…For X-ray data to be successfully included in statistical or data mining methodologies that examine contributions to a response function, sufficient pieces of information of the right kind must be extracted from the X-ray data. Traditional X-ray…
GRAZING INCIDENCE IN-PLANE X-RAY DIFFRACTION IN THE LABORATORYB.K. Tanner, T.P.A. Hase, T.A. Lafford, M.S. Goorsky…Low resolution, high intensity measurements are illustrated in the study of the in-plane lattice parameters and texture of a thin polycrystalline ZnO film on glass, the in-plane order in Cd arachidate Langmuir-Blodgett films, and the depth depen…
IMPROVEMENTS IN LOW POWER, END-WINDOW, TRANSMISSION-TARGET X-RAY TUBESC. Jensen, S.M. Elliott, S.D. Liddiard, A. Reyes-Mena, M. Moras, D.C. Turner…Several recent improvements have been achieved to make these tubes considerably brighter, with better output stability and even smaller size and lower power consumption for handheld instrumentation. Areas of the tube that have been improved incl…
IMPROVEMENTS IN XRF SPECIMEN PREPARATION USING THE DRIED RESIDUE METHOD: GALLIUM IN PLUTONIUM METALC.G. Worley, L.P. Colletti…Several modifications were made to a dried residue specimen preparation method for quantifying gallium in plutonium metal in order to improve the method accuracy and precision. Ion exchange chromatography was utilized to remove the plutonium pri…
IN SITU MEASUREMENT OF GROWTH STRESS IN ALUMINA SCALEE.D. Specht, P.F. Tortorelli, P. Zschack…ISSN 1097-0002IN SITU MEASUREMENT OF GROWTH STRESS IN ALUMINA SCALE E.D. Specht and P. F. Tortorelli etals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA P. Zschack University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Arg…
IN-SITU HIGH TEMPERATURE PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN RARE EARTH NIOBATESK. Jurkschat, P. Sarin, L.F. Siah, W.M. Kriven…So far these phase transformations have mainly been studied either at low temperatures (for instance in LaNbO4) or in specimen that have been quenched after heat treatment. Here, high temperature phase transformations of rare earth niobates have…
INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF USING VARIOUS OPTICS CONFIGURATIONS WITH PROPORTIONAL AND POSITION-SENSITIVE DETECTORSM.J. Kirkham, S.A. Speakman, C.J. Rawn…Incident beam optics used for data collection consisted of a polycapillary X-ray lens, a graded multilayer parabolic X-ray mirror, and programmable divergence slits. Peak position, width, and intensity were studied with respect to the different …
MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION USING A NOVEL SIMULTANEOUS NEAR INFRARED/X-RAY DIFFRACTION INSTRUMENTT. Blanton, C. Barnes, J. Putrelo, A. Yeboah, S. Switalski…Though convenient to use in a laboratory setting, XRD is not easily adapted to in situ monitoring of synthetic chemical production applications or thin film depositions. Near- infrared spectroscopy (NIR) can be adapted to in situ manufacturing s…
MEASURING SOME ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE ELEMENTS USING WAVELENGTH DISPERSIVE X-RAY SPECTROMETRYD.L. Wertz, A. Winters, T. Craft, D. Bratton, H. Williams, D. Patrick, R.A. Lemire…At each firing point, a grid of 13 sample sites has been selected. Special attention has been given to measuring the abundances of aluminum and of chloride at these sample sites. INTRODUCTION Certain artillery units of the United States Army and…
MINIMIZATION OF ERRORS DUE TO MICROABSORPTION OR ABSORPTION CONTRASTB.M. Pederson, K.J. Schaible, R.S. Winburn…One of these is microabsorption. Microabsorption has historically been accounted for using the Brindley correction or mainly ignored. This correction has come under much debate in recent years. This study focuses on examining factors that will a…
MIRROR-BASED X-RAY FLUORESCENCE MICROPROBES AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE AND THE NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCES.R. Sutton, M. Newville, P. Eng, M. Rivers, A. Lanzirotti…Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors are being increasingly utilized for production of X-ray microbeams (~ µm) because of their achromaticity, photon density gains in excess of 104, and long working distances (centimeters). Two such instruments reside at th…
ON-STREAM XRF ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS AT PPM CONCENTRATIONSG. Roach, J. Tickner…The accuracy of the analyser has been determined to be ±2 ppm (1 sigma). Improvements are planned that will significantly increase the speed and accuracy of the analyser and facilitate its adaptation to online / byline monitoring of mineral proc…
PORTABLE XRF ANALYSIS OF JAPANESE HISTORICAL OBJECTSB. Newbury, B. Stephenson, J. Almer, M. Notis, G.S. Cargill, III, G.B. Stephenson, D. Haeffner…In order to meet this problem, a portable XRF has been recently developed and enables elemental analysis for any object at any place. The instrument is based on energy dispersive XRF, and consists of a body approximately five-kilograms for X-ray…
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS BY X-RAY INDUCED TOTAL ELECTRON YIELD (TEY) COMPARED TO XRFAH. Ebel…Whereas the sampling depth of XRFA is determined by photoelectric absorption, for TEY the escape probability of electrons reduces this quantity to values of less than 100 nm. Thus, TEY is practically a surface analytical method with sampling dep…
RESIDUAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN GRAIN-ORIENTED SILICON STEELM. Imafuku, T. Suzuki, H. Suzuki, K. Akita…Dotted cavity lines were formed by Nd:YAG laser with a power density of 3.3 mJ/pulse for the laser- irradiated sample. By using a newly developed X-ray stress measurement method for a single crystal, the tensile residual stresses of 70-160 MPa w…
RESIDUAL-STRAIN DETERMINATION BY LEAST-SQUARES REFINEMENT OF TOF NEUTRON-DIFFRACTION MEASUREMENTS OF DEFORMED URANIUMN. C. Popa, D. Balzar, G. Stefanic, S. Vogel, D. Brown, M. Bourke, B. Clausen…The strain tensor was determined by the least-squares refinement of interplanar spacings for 19 Bragg reflections, as determined from the neutron TOF measurements at LANSCE. An annealed uranium plate was used as a reference sample, thus providin…
RETRACTABLE KNIFE-EDGE FOR XRD COMBINATORIAL SCREENINGB.B. He, F.F. Jin, U. Preckwinkel, K.L. Smith…The knife-edge can control the size of the viewed diffracting sample surface, so as to improve diffraction resolution and eliminate cross contamination between adjacent cells in the materials library. It also reduces the background by blocking o…
RIETVELD REFINEMENT OF XRD AND ND: ANALYSIS OF METASTABLE QANDILITE-LIKE STRUCTURESG. Kimmel, J.W. Richardson, R. Xu, P. Ari-Gur, E. Guncharov, J. Zabicky…Metastable phases, produced between 873 and 973 K from xerogels with Mg/Ti atomic ratios in the range ~1.1 < r ≤ 2, were studied by XRD and ND. XRD analysis showed crystal structures similar to that of Mg2TiO4 (qandilite), an inverse spinel of c…
SHOCK-INDUCED DEFORMATION OF TUNGSTEN POWDERD.W. Richards, R.J. DeAngelis, M.P. Kramer, J.W. House, D.A. Cunard, D.P. Shea…Samples of the tungsten powder were recovered and investigated to characterize the structural effects of detonation. Broadened X-ray diffraction profiles obtained from the shocked tungsten powder were analyzed employing double order and single o…
SILICON DRIFT DETECTORS FOR HIGH RESOLUTION, HIGH COUNT RATE X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY AT ROOM TEMPERATUREP. Lechner, C. Fiorini, A. Longoni, G. Lutz, A. Pahlke, H. Soltau, L. Struder…Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano, Italy ABSTRACT An advanced Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) for X-ray spectroscopy designed and fabricated at the MPI semiconductor laboratory has the input transistor of the amplifying electronics integrated on the detecto…
SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY (DSC) DATA UNDER CONTROLLED HUMIDITY CONDITION: INSTRUMENTATION AND APPLICATION TO STUDIES ON HYDRATION, DEHYDRATION AND RE-HYDRATION PROCESSES OF PHARMACEUTICAL COA. Kishi, H. Toraya…Examples of application to studies on hydration, dehydration and re-hydration processes of pharmaceutical compounds under various humidity conditions are presented. Usefulness of the present XRD-DSC system will be demonstrated. INTRODUCTION Hydr…
STATE-OF-THE-ART SILICON DETECTORS FOR X-RAY SPECTROSCOPYP. Lechner, R.Hartmann, P. Holl, G. Lutz, N. Meidinger, M. Porro, R.H. Richter, G. Schaller, F. Schopper, H. Soltau, L. Struder, J. Treis…Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano, Italy ABSTRACT The semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institutes for physics and for extraterrestrial physics develops and fabricates silicon sensors for scientific experiments in astronomy and high- energy phys…
STRAIN EFFECTS IN THIN FILM / SI SUBSTRATES REVEALED BY X-RAY MICRODIFFRACTIONC.E. Murray, I.C. Noyan, B. Lai, Z. Cai…Residual tensile stress in 1 µm thick, 190 µm diameter Ni dots of 990 MPa imparted an average compressive stress in the underlying Si substrate. Ni Kα fluorescence scans, acquired simultaneously with Si (333) diffraction data, allow for a precis…
STRESS ERRORS ASSOCIATED WITH MINIATURIZATION OF PSI ASSEMBLY X-RAY STRESS ANALYZERST. Goto…As a concluion, it was found that stress errors increase with decreasing goniometer size, and it is believed that the goniometer size could be optimized by the approach adopted in this study. INTRODUCTION There are many mechanical parts whose un…
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SIGE AND SIGE:C HETEROSTRUCTURES USING A COMBINATION OF X-RAY SCATTERING METHODSJ.F. Woitok…One main focus of the analysis is to derive a sample model that sufficiently describes all experimental data sets. In addition, the reliability of parameters extracted by just one single method is discussed. It turned out that XRR is more sen- s…
STUDY ON MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE FOR LATTICE SPACING AT STRAIN FREE BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTION METHODT. Saito, N. Minakawa, Y. Morii, Z. Xiao, T. Sasaki, Y. Hirose…China ** Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Ibaragi, 319-1195, Japan ***Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanawzawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192, Japan ABSTRACT For precise stress analysis of …
SYNCHROTRON APPLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOMETALLURGY: ANALYSIS OF HIGH ZINC BRASS ASTROLABESB. Newbury, B. Stephenson, J. Almer, M. Notis, G.S. Cargill, III, G.B. Stephenson, D. Haeffner…Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA ABSTRACT Synchrotron X-rays were used to perform non-destructive transmission diffraction and fluorescence experiments on a group of 24 European and Islamic astrolabes dated between 1350- 1720 A.D. i…
TEXTURE AND MICROSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS WITH HIGH-ENERGY SYNCHROTRON RADIATIONH.J. Bunge…In order to achieve extremely high angular- combined with very high lateral resolution a continuous sweeping technique with an area detector was employed. This technique “images” three different types of two-dimensional sections and projections …
TEXTURE MEASUREMENTS USING THE NEW NEUTRON DIFFRACTOMETER HIPPO AND THEIR ANALYSIS USING THE RIETVELD METHODS.C. Vogel, C. Hartig, L. Lutterotti, R.B. Von Dreele, H.-R. Wenk, D.J. Williams…The orientation distribution function (ODF) is extracted from multiple neutron time-of-flight histograms using the full-pattern analysis first described by Rietveld. Both, the well-established description of the ODF using spherical harmonics fun…
THERMALLY-INDUCED STRESSES IN THIN ALUMINUM LAYERS GROWN ON SILICONE. Eiper, R. Resel, C. Eisenmenger-Sittner, M. Hafok, J. Keckes…The films with a thickness of 2 µm were deposited by magnetron sputtering at different temperatures, and XRD measurements were carried out with the heating stage DHS 900 mounted on a Seifert 3000 PTS diffractometer. The strains were characterise…
ULTRA-TRACE SPECIATION OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS IN AEROSOLS COLLECTED ON SILICON WAFER SURFACES BY MEANS OF TXRF-NEXAFSS. Torok, J. Osan, B. Beckhoff, G. Ulm…The aerosol samples of different size fractions were deposited on silicon wafer surfaces in a May impactor. Using a thin window Si(Li) detector, TXRF detection limits for nitrogen are in the upper fg and lower pg range. Taking advantage of the t…
USE OF XRD PATTERNS TO EVALUATE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF STABILIZED AGGREGATESN.N. Khoury, M. Zaman, J.G. Laguros…Two commonly used aggregates in Oklahoma: (1) Meridian, a limestone aggregate, and (2) Hanson, a rhyolite aggregate, were utilized in this study. Cylindrical specimens were compacted and cured for 1 hour, 3, 28, and 90 days prior to unconfined c…
USING XRF ANALYSIS TO DEVELOP A HIGH-TECH BUSINESSD.L. Wertz, G. Schnaubelt, D. Bratton, V. Viner, T. Craft, K. Vigour, C.D. Deaton…Each of the products is produced from WOMBAT tire-derived powder, whose production is monitored by WDXRF on a day-to-day basis. Currently, the most important product is a low polluting fuel which is co-blended from tire-derived powder and biomas…
X-RAY EXAMINATION OF FRACTURE SURFACE OF DENTAL MATERIALA. Umeda, H. Hirose, M. Gotoh, T. Saito…Mechanical Engineering, Dalian Institute of Light Industry Qinggog Yuan, Ganjinzi District, Dalian, P.R. 116034, China ABSTRACT X-ray diffraction observation of metal fracture provides fracture analysis with useful information on the mechanics a…
X-RAY MICRODIFFRACTION STUDY OF THE HALF-V SHAPED SWITCHING LIQUID CRYSTALK.Takada, T.Noma, T.Togano, T.Mukaide, A.Iida…The HV-FLC is a FLC that has cholesteric – chiral smectic C (Ch – SmC*) phase transition sequences. X-ray microdiffraction measurements revealed that the SmC* phase in the HV-FLC was composed of asymmetric chevron and inclined-bookshelf structur…
X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTION DATA FOR NA8(ALSIO4)6(REO4)2D.E. McCready, S.V. Mattigod, J.S. Young, B.P. McGrail…Rietveld refinement shows this compound adopts the primitive cubic structure of sodalite (S.G. #218) with a = 9.1528 (1) Å [3]. The calculated value of the reference intensity ratio (I/Ic) is 7.54. The experimental density (Dm) is 2.98 (1) g/cm3…
X-RAYS IN ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY ? AN OVERVIEWM. Schreiner, B. Fruhmann, D. Jembrih-Simburger, R. Linke…X-ray radiography e.g. is a standard technique widely used and accepted by art historians, archaeologists, curators and conservators as this method enables information about the manufacturing process and the condition of an object without “touch…
XRD AND XAFS STUDIES OF CARBON SUPPORTED PT-RU ELECTROCATALYST IN A POLYMER-ELECTROLYTE-FUEL-CELLH. Yashiro, K. Hoshino…XRD analysis identified a face-centered-cubic (fcc) alloy structure for Pt-Ru. XAFS analysis revealed that Pt and Ru atoms were, however, not randomly distributed in the Pt-Ru fcc lattice. A Pt atom was more likely surrounded by Pt atoms, wherea…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2002 – VOL46

A HIGH-TEMPERATURE POWDER DIFFRACTION FURNACEM.D. Dolan, S. Zdzieszynski, S.T. Misture…This paper will describe the technical specifications of the new instrument, and will present temperature calibration with standard reference materials and measurement of phase evolution in an industrial glass batch as illustrations of instrumen…
A NEW SMALL ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING NANO-SCALE PORE/PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN THIN FILMY. Ito, K. Omote, J. Harada…In order to avoid strong specular reflection, we used offset scan (2θ / θ+δθ) for measuring scattering data. To deal with reflection and refraction at surface and interfaces, we calculated X-ray wave field in the film based on Distorted Wave Bor…
ACCURATE QUANTIFICATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE: GALLIUM IN PLUTONIUM METALC.G. Worley…The steps necessary to handle such materials safely will also be discussed. Quantification of plutonium samples by a well- established aqueous specimen preparation method resulted in relative precision and accuracy values of well less than 1%. A…
ANALYSIS OF GEOLOGIC MATERIALS USING RIETVELD QUANTITATIVE X-RAY DIFFRACTIONR.M. Gonzalez, T.E. Edwards, T.D. Lorbiecke, R.S. Winburn, J.R. Webster…To assess the success of the RQXRD method, the bulk mineralogy of the dacite was determined through a combination of optical study of phenocrysts (plagioclase, augite, orthopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxide) and detailed study of the groundmass using a …
ANALYSIS OF THE SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CVD-GROWN DIAMOND FILMS WITH X-RAY DIFFRACTIONM.J. Fransen, J. te Nijenhuis, J.H.A. Vasterink, R.L. Stolk, J.J. Schermer…Phase identification showed the presence of crystalline molybdenum carbide at the interface, as well as the incorporation of a small amount of non-diamond carbon throughout the diamond layer. The pole figures revealed a change in texture with in…
ANISOTROPIC STRAIN-LIKE LINE BROADENING DUE TO COMPOSITION VARIATIONSA. Leineweber, E.J. Mittemeijer…A nearly Gaussian purely strain-like broadening was observed. The broadening is strongly orientation dependent. For each direction of the diffraction vector relative to the crystallographic axes the width of the reflections varies proportional t…
ANNEALING STUDIES OF PURE AND ALLOYED TANTALUM EMPLOYING ROCKING CURVESD.W. Richards, M.P. Kramer, J.W. House, R.J. De Angelis…In this investigation X-ray rocking curves were employed to characterize the microstructure and further the understanding of the mechanisms of annealing. Plate material produced from the alloyed tantalum demonstrated annealing stages 300ºC highe…
APPLICATION OF SYNCHROTRON EDXRD STRAIN PROFILING IN SHOT PEENED MATERIALSI. Zakharchenko, Y. Gulak, Z. Zhong, M. Croft, T. Tsakalakos…The near surface compression, induced by shot peening, has made it a classic industrial technique to extend the loading limits and fatigue lives of materials. We have measured the detailed depth variation of the strain, in high carbon spring ste…
APPLICATION OF THE BACKSCATTER FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETER METHOD WITH SIMULTANEOUS EXCITATION BY 55FE AND 109CD RADIOISOTOPE SOURCESD. Wegrzynek, A. Markowicz, E. Chinea-Cano, S. Bamford, P.J. Potts…Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland 3) Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom ABSTRACT The backscatter fundamental parameter (BFP) method has been applied for determination of ele…
APPLICATIONS OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION IN THE IMAGING INDUSTRYT.N. Blanton…Silver halide grains precipitated as multicomponent AgBr1-xIx phases were found to be comprised of a core with three shells. The composition of the core and shells was determined using lattice constant measurements. Nanocomposites for photograph…
CALIBRATION OF DIFFRACTOMETERS II: INTERNAL CONSISTENCY AND THE BALANCEG. Berti, M. D’Acunto, U. Bartoli, F. De Marco…Reproducibility, repeatability, and accuracy increased when calibration procedures are taken into account. The evaluation of internal consistency is required for a good quality calibration process, a good check of the optical alignment, and accu…
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SOLIDS WASTE IN THE HANFORD WASTE TANKS USING A COMBINATION OF XRD, SEM AND PLMR.W. Warrant, G.A. Cooke…Approximately 330,000 metric tons of sodium-rich radioactive waste originating from separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel is stored in 177 underground tanks at Hanford. Current plans call for much of this waste to be vitrified and…
COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL XRDB.B. He, U. Preckwinkel, K.L. Smith…A two-dimensional XRD system for combinatorial screening in transmission mode is introduced. IINTRODUCTION A two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (XRD2) system has both the capability of acquiring diffraction patterns in 2D space simultaneously, an…
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE DETERMINATIONS OF THREE-LAYER AURIVILLIUS CERAMICS USING A NEW PARALLEL BEAM X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTOMETERM.S. Haluska, S. Speakman, S.T. Misture…The intent of this study was to determine the feasibility of parallel beam data in a research environment. These results were compared to those previously obtained using a typical divergent beam diffractometer. In general, the refinement results…
CURVATURE MEASUREMENTS OF STRESSED SURFACE-ACOUSTIC-WAVE FILTERS USING BRAGG ANGLE CONTOUR MAPPINGP.M. Adams…The performance of these devices is critically dependent on the spacing and geometry of the interdigitation. Any manufacturing process errors that affect the geometry of the transducers and/or the surface acoustic wave speed will affect the devi…
DEVELOPMENT OF MEASURING SYSTEM FOR STRESS BY MEANS OF IMAGE PLATE FOR LABORATORY X-RAY EXPERIMENTK. Hiratsuka, T. Sasaki, K. Seki, Y. Hirose…An image plate (IP) was used in this study as an area detector. A stress measuring system using an X-ray two-dimensional detector was developed. This was designed in order to be used in the authors’ X-ray laboratory. The background and the purpo…
DEVELOPMENT OF WAVELENGTH DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETER USING A MULTI-CAPILLARY X-RAY LENS FOR X-RAY DETECTIONY. Horino, Y. Mokuno, T. Narusawa, S. Kuwabara, S. Shibata, H. Soejima…We installed a MCX into the X-ray detection side (ie. the crystal spectrometer side) of a conventional WD-XRF machine (Shimadzu XRF-1800). The MCX collects fluorescent X-rays from a selected sample area of diameter 0.1 mm or less and collimates …
DIAGNOSIS OF LN-DOPED PZT FILMS VIA MICRODIFFRACTION: CORRELATION OF PROPERTIES TO OBSERVED FWHMM.A. Rodriguez, G. Brennecka, B. Tuttle, R. Tissot…Additionally, an un-doped film, and a 4 mol% Y-doped film were also investigated. Loss of switchable polarization (fatigue) showed a correlation to increased FWHM of the (222) PZT peak. Careful, systematic profile-fitting and decomposition of th…
EFFECT OF REINFORCEMENT PARTICLE FRACTURE ON THE LOAD PARTITIONING IN AN AL-SIC COMPOSITEH. Choo, B.S. Majumdar, P. Rangaswamy, M.A.M. Bourke…ESA-DE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 4. MST-8, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 ABSTRACT We studied load partitioning during tensile loading of a 7093 Al alloy reinforced with 15 volume percent SiC par…
EFFECT OF THE RESIDUAL STRESS ON THE MECHANICAL STRENGTH OF THE THIN FILMSM. Gotoh, S. Takago, T. Sasaki, Y. Hirose…TiN and TiCN thin films were deposited by the physical vapor deposition (PVD) on JIS-SKH55 steel (equivalent to AISI M35). Subsequently, the specimens were heated to 573, 798, 843, and 893K. The texture states in thin films were evaluated from t…
HEAVY MINERAL ANALYSIS OF SANDSTONES BY RIETVELD ANALYSISJ.R. Webster, R.P. Kight, R.S. Winburn, C.A. Cool…Heavy minerals were separated from three size fractions covering the range of 0.18 to 0.30 mm. Polished grain mounts prepared from each size fraction were used to identify and measure the size of 1,517 grains by optical microscopy. Mineral compo…
HIGH TEMPERATURE ELASTIC STRAIN EVOLUTION IN SI3N4- BASED CERAMICSG.A. Swift, E. Ustundag, B. Clausen, M.A.M. Bourke, H.-T. Lin, C.-W. Li…The deep penetration of neutrons facilitated these in-situ studies. In particular, the hkl-dependent strains were measured and the results interpreted by Eshelby-based modeling for the Si3N4-SiCp sample. The diffraction data also provided inform…
HIGH TEMPERATURE X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDY OF REACTION RATES IN CERAMICSM.S. Peterson, C.A. Say, S.A. Speakman, S.T. Misture…Current research has shown that in order to make phase pure materials via solid-state synthesis, over 100 hours of heat treatment are necessary. A custom high temperature X-ray diffractometer (HTXRD) was utilized to observe in-situ formation rea…
HIGH TEMPERATURE X-RAY STUDY OF PHASE EVOLUTION OF BA2YCU3O6+X FILMS USING THE “BAF2 CONVERSION PROCESS”W. Wong-Ng, I. Levin, M. Vaudin, R. Feenstra, L.P. Cook, J.P. Cline…ABSTRACT In-situ high-temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD) was used to study the phase formation and reaction kinetics of the Ba2YCu3O6+x (Y-213) phase using the ex-situ “BaF2 conversion process”. Three sets of films on single crystal SrTiO3 su…
IDENTIFICATION OF FORGED WORKS OF ART BY PORTABLE EDXRF SPECTROMETRYM. Ardid, J.L. Ferrero, D. Juanes, C. Roldyn, M. Crespo, M.E. Pernett, M. Marzal, M. Burke, S. Rovira, R. Vives…Pintura, Universitat de Barcelona, BARCELONA (Spain) ABSTRACT The study of patrimonial works by non-destructive techniques allow the analysis of unique and historic pieces without compromising their integrity. The Archaeometry Unit of the Instit…
IN-SITU, IN AIR, HIGH-TEMPERATURE STUDIES OF OXIDE SYSTEMS USING THE THERMAL-IMAGING TECHNIQUEL.F. Siah, J. Schneider, W.M. Kriven…Although the thermal radiative properties of the materials under study dictate their thermal behavior in the image hot-spot, this may be modified through a suitable co-existent coating material which absorbs in the wavelength range of the lamps …
INVESTIGATION OF LOCAL TEXTURES IN EXTRUDED MAGNESIUM BY SYNCHROTRON RADIATIONH.-G. Brokmeier, A. G†nther, S. Yi, W. Ye, T. Lippmann, U. Garbe…Our experiments were carried out at the high-field wiggler beam line BW5 (HASYLAB at DESY in Hamburg, Germany). The penetration power of 100 keV synchrotron radiation was sufficient to study extruded rods of 14 mm in diameter in transmission mod…
LASER-COMPTON SCATTERING AS A POTENTIAL BRIGHT X-RAY SOURCEK. Chouffani, D. Wells, F. Harmon, G. Lancaster, J. Jones…Sharp monochromatic X-ray lines were observed which result from the interaction of the electron beam with the laser optical photons. The back-scattered photons are kinematically boosted to keV X-ray energies. The X-rays were generated by collidi…
LATTICE DILATION IN A HYDROGEN CHARGED STEELG.L. Nash, H. Choo, P. Nash, L.L. Daemen, M.A.M. Bourke…LANSCE-12, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 5. MST-8, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 ABSTRACT The effect of hydrogen charging on the lattice dilation in an ASTM A710-HSLA steel specimen was studied using…
MANAGING BACKGROUND PROFILES USING A NEW X’CELERATOR DETECTORR.W. Morton, D.E. Simon, J.J. Gislason, S. Taylor…This paper discusses the instrument configuration necessary to obtain a satisfactory background profile useful for Rietveld modeling as well as other analytical applications. INTRODUCTION The new Philips X’Celerator [1] detector provides for rap…
MCSHAPE: A MONTE CARLO CODE FOR SIMULATION OF POLARIZED PHOTON TRANSPORTJ.E. Fernandez, V.G. Molinari, M. Bastiano, V. Scot…A B S T R A C T MCSHAPE, a new Monte Carlo code based on the recent analytical solution of the vector transport equations in plane geometry including polarization effects, was developed to provide a proper description of the polarization state e…
METHODOLOGY OF SYNCHROTRON EDXRD STRAIN PROFILINGI. Zakharchenko, Y. Gulak, Z. Zhong, M. Croft, T. Tsakalakos…Extremely tight incident/diffracted b!”#$ %&”(#”)(&*$ +,-.$ /#0$ is used to define a fixed micro-scattering-volume, through which the specimen is scanned to produce the profiling. Exhaustive theoretical modeling of the experiment provides outst…
MINIMIZATION OF MICROABSORPTION EFFECTS IN COMPLEX MIXTURESB.M. Pederson, R.M. Gonzalez, R.S. Winburn…One of these is microabsorption. Microabsorption has historically been ignored or accounted for using the Brindley correction. This correction has come under much debate in recent years. A recent Round Robin study on quantitative analysis includ…
MONOCAPILLARY OPTICS DEVELOPMENTS AND APPLICATIONSD.H. Bilderback, R. Huang, A. Kazimirov, I.A. Kriksunov, K. Limburg, E. Fontes…The optics come in two forms: 1) multibounce condensing capillaries for making submicron diameter beams and 2) one-bounce imaging capillaries with working distances of 20 to 50 mm from the tip of optic to the focal spot. The preliminary results …
PERFORMANCE OF A YB66 DOUBLE-CRYSTAL MONOCHROMATOR FOR DISPERSING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION AT SPRING-8M. Kitamura, H. Yoshikawa, T. Mochizuki, A.M. Vlaicu, A. Nisawa, N. Yagi, M. Okui, M. Kimura, T. Tanaka, S. Fukushima…Spring – 8. The YB, crystal has a large d – spacing of 0.586 nm for the (4 0 0) reflection and is useful as a soft X – ray monochromator for dispersing synchrotron radiation, since there is no intrinsic absorption edge and it is more durable tha…
POLARIZATION FOR BACKGROUND REDUCTION IN EDXRF – THE TECHNIQUE THAT DOES INDEED WORKR.W. Ryon…The general implementation of polarization to X-ray analysis had to await the fixed geometry of energy- dispersive systems. The means of optimizing these systems is shown in this review paper. Improved detection limits are the result. INTRODUCTI…
PULP AND PAPER PLANT MATERIALS ISSUES ADDRESSED BY X-RAY AND NEUTRON DIFFRACTION METHODSC.R. Hubbard, R.A. Peascoe, J.R. Keiser…Both monetary and environmental concerns demand that the inorganic chemicals and the organic byproducts are recycled. Currently recovery boilers are the standard means to recycle the inorganic chemicals and organic waste to produce a large fract…
REEL-TO-REEL TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF HTS COATED CONDUCTORS USING A MODIFIED GADDS SYSTEMJ.L. Reeves, V. Selvamanickam, R.L. Snyder…One way to achieve the high degree of texture is with the coated conductor architecture. The coated conductor is comprised of the HTS layer epitaxially grown on a textured oxide buffer layer on a metal tape which gives flexibility and strength t…
RENDERING OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ORIENTATIONS, ORIENTATION AND POLE PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTIONSH. Schaeben, K.G. van den Boogaart…The familiar crystallographic “pole figures” are actually the sum of two spherical X–ray transforms which associate with a real–valued function f defined on a sphere its mean values Xf along one–dimensional circles with centre O, the origin of t…
RESIDUAL STRESS DETERMINATIONS USING PARALLEL BEAM OPTICST.R. Watkins, O.B. Cavin, J. Bai, J.A. Chediak…Utilization of parallel beam optics can experimentally remove/minimize diffraction peak shifts due to such displacements. Data collected from a cylindrical sample (diameter ~ 6 mm) at ambient temperature and flat alumina coatings at elevated tem…
RIETVELD ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX MIXTURES. WHAT CAN WE DO?R.S. Winburn…The recent report on the IUCR Round Robin study on quantitative analysis indicates that accurate results may not always be obtained when using RQXRD, even with simple three-phase mixtures. What can we do when we have samples with many phases and…
RIETVELD REFINEMENT OF 2-THETA SPLIT RANGES – A METHOD FOR REDUCING ANALYSIS TIMEK. Laursen, T. White…The approach taken here is that phases in general show peak broadening as well as a loss of intensity with increasing 2-theta. Thus, by splitting the full analyzed 2-theta range into regions and adjusting the step-size and counting time to an ap…
SPECTRAL INTERFERENCE IN X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF COMMON MATERIALSF.R. Feret, H. Hamouche, Y. Boissonneault…Most attention over the past two decades or so was focussed on inter-element interactions and their mathematical corrections using various fundamental-parameters methods. However, spectral interference plays a role, which is very often not prope…
STRESS ANALYSIS USING BREMSSTRAHLUNG RADIATIONF.A. Selim, D.P. Wells, J.F. Harmon, J. Kwofie, A.K. Roy, T. White, T. Roney…Box1625 – 2802, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 ABSTRACT Diffraction methods are the most reliable nondestructive methods of measuring residual stress. X-ray diffraction is restricted to penetration depths of some 10 µm, whereas neutron diffraction can pr…
STRUCTURE OF NANOCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS BY THE ATOMIC PAIR DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION TECHNIQUEV. Petkov…We find that V2O5.nH2O is an assembly of almost perfect bi-layers of VO5 units encapsulating the water molecules. Inside the nanopores of ITQ-4 the cesium ions are found to assemble in short-range ordered zig-zag chains. INTRODUCTION Nanocrystal…
THE INFLUENCE OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON THE REFRACTION OF X-RAYS AND ITS EFFECT ON BRAGG PEAK POSITIONSMichael H. Ott, Detlef Löhe…A set of brass samples with different surface roughnesses was used to measure the Bragg peak positions of {111} lattice plane in asymmetric Ω-mode with a constant incidence angle α. In a set of measurements with different incidence angles α the …
THE USE OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION MEASUREMENTS TO DETERMINE THE EFECT OF AGING ON RESIDUAL STRESSES IN UNIDIRECTIONAL AND WOVEN GRAPHITE/POLYIMIDE COMPOSITESB. Benedikt, M. Gentz, L. Kumosa, P.K. Predecki, D. Armentrout, M. Kumosa, J.K. Sutter…Cleveland, OH 44135 ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of aging in either air or nitrogen on the residual interlaminar strains and stresses in unidirectional and woven graphite/polyimide composites. In order to accompli…
THERMAL FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF LASER PEENED HOT WORK DIE STEEL (H13)K. Yatsushiro, M. Sano, M. Kuramoto…Prior to the test, residual stress on the specimen of laser peened surface was approximately -1000 MPa, and the depth of the created compressive stress was approximately 1800µm. During the test, compressive residual stress of laser peened area w…
THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAPPING OF FATIGUE CRACK POSITION VIA A NOVEL X-RAY PHASE CONTRAST APPROACHK. Ignatiev, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, G.R. Davis, J.C. Elliott, S.R. Stock…Bioeng. & Nanosci. in Adv. Medicine, Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL 60611 USA ABSTRACT X-ray absorption microtomography loses considerable sensitivity when it is applied to samples with high-aspect-ratio cross-sections, e.g. plates or compact t…
TIME-RESOLVED X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF THE TEXTURE FORMATION KINETICS IN THE C49-C54 TISI2 PHASE TRANSFORMATIONA.S. Ozcan, K.F. Ludwig, Jr., C. Lavoie, C. Cabral, Jr., J.M.E. Harper…In previous work we identified three dominant C54 orientations in TiSi2 thin films on Si(001) substrates using X-ray pole figure analysis. In the current study the evolution of the three prominent C54 texture components was further examined usin…
UNDERKARAT JEWELRY: THE PERFECT CRIME? INVESTIGATIONS AND ANALYSIS OF JEWELRY USING XRFD. Kloos…It has become increasingly common in the last 15 years for XRF to be used in a preemptory fashion by jewelry manufacturers for process control and by industry oversight organizations for checking for compliance to karat fineness regulations. XRF…
USE OF X-RAYS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICED.F. Rendle…The complementary techniques of XRD and XRF are used mainly in trace analysis. Traces may consist of drugs, paint flakes, glass fragments, hair and fibres (natural and man-made), slivers of metal, soils, building materials, stains of any descrip…
VACANCY FORMATION DURING LOW-TEMPERATURE AG(001) AND AG(111) HOMOEPITAXYC.E. Botez, K. Li, E. Lu, W.C. Elliott, P.F. Miceli, E. Conrad, P.W. Stephens…For both orientations, our specular reflectivity data show that a large surface-normal compressive strain is uniformly distributed in the films deposited at T<200K. We attribute the strain to the incorporation of a considerable vacancy concentra…
VORTEX(TM) – A NEW HIGH PERFORMANCE SILICON DRIFT DETECTOR FOR XRD AND XRF APPLICATIONSS. Barkan, J.S. Iwanczyk, B.E. Patt, L. Feng, C.R. Tull…The Vortex™ design allows for a relatively large active area while still maintaining a very low anode capacitance (~ 60 fF). This very small detector capacitance results in a reduction of the series- noise component and hence a reduction of the …
WAVEGUIDE-RESONANCE MECHANISM FOR X-RAY BEAM PROPAGATION: PHYSICS AND EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUNDV.K. Egorov, E.V. Egorov…It is experimentally shown that the high intensity of its emergent beam is not connected with the mechanism of free radiation propagation and with multiple total reflection of the beam. This type of X-ray passing we associate with the waveguide-…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS IN THE FORENSIC SCIENCE: THE LAST RESORT IN MANY CRIMINAL CASESW. Kugler…They are often the only methods that allow a further differentiation of materials under laboratory conditions. Smears, minute contact traces, small sample quantities, or tiny sam- ple areas can be successfully analyzed as well as large quantitie…
X-RAY STRESS ANALYSIS OF DAMAGE EVOLUTION IN TI-SIC UNIDIRECTIONAL FIBER COMPOSITESJ.C. Hanan, E. Ustundag, I.J. Beyerlein, G.A. Swift, J.D. Almer, U. Lienert, D.R. Haeffner…Through the use of high energy X-ray microdiffraction, the elastic lattice strains of both phases in a Ti-SiC composite were revealed providing the in-situ load transfer under applied tensile stress at the scale of the microstructure. To underst…
ZINC/IRON PHASE TRANSFORMATION STUDIES ON GALVANNEALED STEEL COATINGS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTIONS. Wienstroer, M. Fransen, H. Mittelstadt, C. Nazikkol, M. Volker…A novel X-ray detection system enables an extreme reduction of measuring time, which allows XRD techniques to be an alternative fast analytical method for surface investigations. In combination with a heating chamber, fast surface phase transfor…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

2001 – VOL45

A DIFFRACTOMETER FOR X-RAY STUDIES OF TBC BOND COATS BENEATH ZIRCONIA TOP COATS, K. VAIDYANATHAN, D. PEASE, E. JORDAN, H. CANISTRARO, M. GELL, T. WATKINS, PP. 48-53K. Vaidyanathan, D. Pease, E. Jordan, H. Canistraro, M. Gell, T. Watkins…The thinner high performance coatings typically fail due to mismatch strain at the ceramic/metal interface. We have constructed a laboratory diffractometer with which we have measured diffraction lines of bond coats lying underneath a 125-µm thi…
A HISTORICAL REVIEW OF RETAINED AUSTENITE AND ITS MEASUREMENT BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION, S.H. MAGNER, R.J. DE ANGELIS, W.N. WEINS, J.D. MAKINSON, PP. 92-97S.H. Magner, R.J. De Angelis, W.N. Weins, J.D. Makinson…INTRODUCTION Quantitative determination of retained austenite content in heat-treated steels by x-ray diffraction has provided a reliable means of controlling properties and ensuring quality. Depending on the composition, austenitizing temperatu…
A NEW REGULARIZATION METHOD TO DETERMINE STRAINS/STRESS DEPTH PROFILES FROM DIFFRACTION EXPERIMENTS, H. WERN, P. KLEIN, G. MARCHAND, PP. 206-211H. Wern, P. Klein, G. Marchand…The reason is that that the linear system of equations which has to be solved for the τ- or true depth gradients from the measured τ-profiles becomes singular. From the mathematical point of view, regularization methods are recommended to overco…
A NON-DESTRUCTIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF METAL ALLOY WIRE SAMPLES, S.J. GOLDSTEIN, L.D. SIVILS, PP. 457-462S.J. Goldstein, L.D. Sivils…Here, we report an alternative non-destructive energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method for determination of nickel, gold, copper, and silver in metal alloy wires. Sample preparation is simple and consists of mounting wires as a singl…
A QUARTER OF CENTURY OF ROUND ROBIN TESTS ON XRD, G. BERTI, M. D’ACUNTO, F. DE MARCO, PP. 60-65G. Berti, M. D’Acunto, F. De Marco…As the general follow up from these conclusions a proposal is here launched to establish an international network for the “Calibration Monitoring of the Diffractometers”. INTRODUCTION X-rays were discovered in Germany more than one century ago. …
A QUICK AND RELIABLE FUSION METHOD FOR SILICON AND FERROSILICON, J. BLANCHETTE, PP. 415-420J. Blanchette…The new approach presented by the author last year at DXC2000 [1] paved the way to a new generation of fusion methods that give surprising results. Based on the same approach, a short and efficient chemical treatment has been found to oxidize si…
ABSTRACT_PPXRD_4_2005_JGIOVANNINI.DOCSi…Two unknown crystal structures were solved (α-anhydrates, Lα and LαH) with a direct space method and PXRD data. The LαH2O [1,2,3,4] used exhibited a chemical purity of more than 99.7%. For the Lβ[4,5,6], a purification step by crystallisation in…
AN INNOVATED LABORATORY XAFS APPARATUS, T. TAGUCHI, J. HARADA, K. TOHJI, K. SHINODA, PP. 397-401T. Taguchi, J. Harada, K. Tohji, K. Shinoda…XAFS spectroscopy has an advantage in providing the structural information of amorphous, liquid or catalyst, which cannot be obtained by X-ray powder diffraction technique. Results from XAFS spectroscopy are commonly reported using synchrotron r…
ANALYSIS OF LEAD IN CANDLE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS BY XRF USING UNIQUANT (REGISTERED TRADEMARK) 4, S.J. WASSON, Z. GUO, PP. 539-543S.J. Wasson, Z. Guo…The particulate emissions with aerodynamic diameters <10 :m (PM10) were captured on quartz filters and analyzed under vacuum in a Philips PW 2404 wavelength-dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) Spectrometer. UniQuant® 4 software was used to cal…
APATITE STRUCTURES, J.C. ELLIOTT, R.M. WILSON, S.E.P. DOWKER, PP. 172-181J.C. Elliott, R.M. Wilson, S.E.P. Dowker…This packing has octahedral interstitial sites that form channels through the structure parallel to the hexagonal axis. The F- and 4/10ths of the Ca2+ ions are located in these channels forming columns of F- and Ca2+ ions respectively. The remai…
APPLICATIONS OF 2D DETECTORS IN X-RAY ANALYSIS, M.B. DICKERSON, K. PATHAK, K.H. SANDHAGE, R.L. SNYDER, U. BALACHANDRAN, B. MA, R.D. BLAUGHER, R.N. BHATTACHARYA, PP. 338-344M.B. Dickerson, K. Pathak, K.H. Sandhage, R.L. Snyder, U. Balachandran, B. Ma, R.D. Blaugher, R.N. Bhattacharya…Blaugher and R.N. Bhattacharya Basic Science Division, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO 80401 ABSTRACT X-ray transparent reaction vessels for the dynamic in-situ study of materials processes involving volatile agents have been dev…
AUTOMATED PROCESSING OF 2D POWDER DIFFRACTION DATA, S. VOGEL, L. EHM, K. KNORR, G. BRAUN, PP. 31-33S. Vogel, L. Ehm, K. Knorr, G. Braun…For structural analysis, such 2D data usually is integrated to 2θ-scan powder diffraction patterns. Our software is capable to automate such integrations including a geometry correction and automated masking of intensities pixels not resulting f…
BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION FOR TRACE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS – ANALYTICAL COMPARISON OF METHODS, R.A. COUTURE, PP. 441-446R.A. Couture…This discussion systematically develops and compares interpolation methods analytically, to demonstrate their strengths, weaknesses, and correct use. The background can be estimated from measurement at a single angle, or it can be interpolated a…
CALIBRATION MONITORING OF DIFFRACTOMETERS, G. BERTI, M. D’ACUNTO, PP. 66-71G. Berti, M. D’Acunto…The present report synthetically outlines the results obtained by using a commercial sample of Corumdum and specifically designed operative protocols. This experiment aims to find possible characteristic curves of diffraction experiments. These …
CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOMETER LAYERED STRUCTURES USING MULTIPLE WAVELENGTH X-RAY REFLECTOMETRY AND SIMULATED ANNEALING DATA ANALYSIS, E. ZIEGLER, C. FERRERO, F. LAMY, C. CHAPRON, CH. MORAWE, PP. 345-351E. Ziegler, C. Ferrero, F. Lamy, C. Chapron, Ch. Morawe…To address this problem, hard X-ray grazing-incidence specular reflectivity measurements and data modeling were performed. However, strong correlations between parameters (e.g. thickness and density, roughness and density) were observed due to i…
DAMAGE EVOLUTION IN TI-SIC UNIDIRECTIONAL FIBER COMPOSITES, J.C. HANAN, G.A. SWIFT, E. USTUNDAG, I.J. BEYERLEIN, B. CLAUSEN, J. ALMER, U. LIENERT, D.R. HAEFFNER, PP. 251-256J.C. Hanan, G.A. Swift, E. Ustundag, I.J. Beyerlein, B. Clausen, J. Almer, U. Lienert, D.R. Haeffner…To better understand the evolution of such damage from a micromechanics point of view, a model Ti-matrix/SiC-fiber composite was studied for the first time. Using high energy X-rays and a small sampling volume, the damage zone around a broken fi…
DEEP MULTILAYER GRATINGS WITH ADJUSTABLE BANDPASS FOR XRF SPECTROSCOPY, V.V. MARTYNOV, YU. PLATONOV, PP. 402-408V.V. Martynov, Yu. Platonov…When making a multilayer grating, we remove part of the reflecting planes of a multilayer, allowing radiation to penetrate deeper. Since the resolution, or the bandpass, is reciprocally proportional to the penetration depth, we improve the resol…
DEVELOPMENT OF ACCELERATOR –BASED X-RAY FLUORESCENCE FOR LARGE SAMPLE ASSAYD.P. Wells, F.A. Selim, J.F. Harmon, W. Scates, J. Kwofie, R. Spaulding, S.P. Duttagupta, J.L. Jones, T. White, T. Roney…Box1625 – 2802, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 Abstract: A new nondestructive accelerator based x-ray fluorescence (AXRF) approach has been developed to identify heavy metals in large-volume samples. Such samples are an important part of the process and …
DEVELOPMENT OF MGO CERAMIC STANDARDS FOR X-RAY AND NEUTRON LINE BROADENING ASSESSMENTS, S. PRATAPA, B. O’CONNOR, PP. 41-47S. Pratapa, B. O’Connor…The production of these is of interest to the authors for general-purpose XRD and ND line profile work as the popular LaB6 NIST SRM 660 standard cannot be used in neutron investigations due the severity of neutron attenuation. The basis of devel…
EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON RESIDUAL STRESS PROFILES OF PULSE-PLATED CRACK-FREE CR LAYER , Y. KOBAYASHI, J. NAGASAWA, K. WATANABE, K. NAKAMURA, T. SASAKI, Y. HIROSE, PP. 280-285Y. Kobayashi, J. Nagasawa, K. Watanabe, K. Nakamura, T. Sasaki, Y. Hirose…Hakusan, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0006, Japan ***Dept. of Mat. Sci. and Engg., Kanazawa Univ., Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan ABSTRACT The residual stresses of crack-free Cr layers deposited on a steel substrate by pulse current elec- tro…
ELASTIC STRAIN EVOLUTION IN SINGLE-FIBER METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES UNDER TENSILE LOADINGJ.C. Hanan, E. Ustundag, I.J. Beyerlein, G.A. Swift, B. Clausen, D.W. Brown, M.A.M. Bourke…However, the deformation of individual phases in composites usually differs significantly from their respective monolithic behaviors. For instance, generally little is known about the in-situ deformation of the metal matrix and fiber/matrix inte…
FACTORS INFLUENCING QUANTITATIVE RESULTS FOR COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS USING THE RIETVELD METHOD, R.M. GONZALEZ, T.D. LORBIECKE, B.W. MCINTYRE, J.D. CATHCART, M. BROWNFIELD, R.S. WINBORN, PP. 188-193R.M. Gonzalez, T.D. Lorbiecke, B.W. McIntyre, J.D. Cathcart, M. Brownfield, R.S. Winborn…Geological Survey, Box 24506, Stop 973, Denver, CO 80225 ABSTRACT The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Fly Ash Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been investigated by Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction (RQXRD) usi…
FATIGUE CRACKS IN ALUMINUM SAMPLES STUDIED WITH X-RAY PHASE CONTRAST IMAGING AND WITH ABSORPTION MICROTOMOGRAPHY, S.R. STOCK, K. IGNATIEV, G.R. DAVIS, J.C. ELLIOTT, K. FEZZAA, W.-K. LEE, PP. 123-127S.R. Stock, K. Ignatiev, G.R. Davis, J.C. Elliott, K. Fezzaa, W.-K. Lee…Bioengineering & Nanoscience in Advanced Medicine, Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL, USA ABSTRACT X-ray absorption microtomography, a high resolution variant of medical “CT”, quantifies three- dimensional microstructures efficiently and noninvasi…
FEASIBILITY OF IN SITU TXRF, A. SINGH, P. GOLDENZWEIG, K. BAUR, S. BRENNAN, P. PIANETTA, PP. 554-560A. Singh, P. Goldenzweig, K. Baur, S. Brennan, P. Pianetta…For transition elements on Si wafer surfaces, detection limits of 8×107 atoms/cm2 that correspond to 1 impurity atom among 30 million substrate atoms have proven more than adequate for the studies undertaken to date. New studies, which aim to de…
FOCUSING POLYCAPILLARY OPTICS FOR DIFFRACTION, H. HUANG, C.A. MACDONALD, W.M. GIBSON, J.R. RUBLE, J.X. HO, D.C. CARTER, J. CHIK, I. PONOMAREV, PP. 325-331H. Huang, C.A. MacDonald, W.M. Gibson, J.R. Ruble, J.X. Ho, D.C. Carter, J. Chik, I. Ponomarev…New Century Pharmaceuticals Inc., 85 Martin Rd., Huntsville, AL 35824 d. Laboratory of Physical and Structural Biology, National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD 20892 ABSTRACT In this paper, we describe two low power systems using polycapillar…
FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETER METHOD FOR THE LOW ENERGY REGION INCLUDING THE CASCADE EFFECT AND THE PHOTOELECTRON EXCITATION, N. KAWAHARA, T. SHOJI, T. YAMADA, Y. KATAOKA, B. BECKHOFF, G. ULM, M. MANTLER, PP. 511-516N. Kawahara, T. Shoji, T. Yamada, Y. Kataoka, B. Beckhoff, G. Ulm, M. Mantler…The plane grating monochromator beamline for undulator radiation covers the energy range from 30 eV to 1.9 keV, and the four-crystal monochromator beamline for synchrotron radiation from 1.75 keV to 10.5 keV. The Cr-L fluorescence intensities sh…
HIGH CONTRAST IMAGING WITH POLYCAPILLARY OPTICS, C.A. MACDONALD, W.M. GIBSON, F.R. SUGIRO, PP. 319-324C.A. MacDonald, W.M. Gibson, F.R. Sugiro…Contrast enhancement was nearly a factor of two compared to a conventional grid as measured using 5-cm thick Lucite phantoms. Alternatively, using a collimating optic and diffracting crystal provides sufficient monochromatic beam intensity for m…
HIGH RESOLUTION DEBYE-SCHERRER CAMERA INSTALLED AT SPRING-8, M. TAKATA, E. NISHIBORI, K. KATO, Y. KUBOTA, Y. KUROIWA, M. SAKATA, PP. 377-384M. Takata, E. Nishibori, K. Kato, Y. Kubota, Y. Kuroiwa, M. Sakata…Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan ABSTRACT The design and performance of a large Debye-Scherrer Camera recently installed at SPring-8, BL02B2, which uses an Imaging Plate (IP) detector, is reported. By taking advantage of the …
IMPROVED MODELING OF RESIDUAL STRAIN/STRESS AND CRYSTALLITE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN RIETVELD REFINEMENT, D. BALZAR, N.C. POPA, PP. 152-157D. Balzar, N.C. Popa…The first is the model that yields the complete texture-weighted strain and stress tensors as a function of crystallite orientations, as well as the average values of macroscopic strain and stress tensors for all Laue classes. Implementation in …
IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF RIETVELD-DERIVED LATTICE PARAMETERS BY AN ORDER OF MAGNITUDE, B. O’CONNOR, S. PRATAPA, PP. 158-165B. O’Connor, S. Pratapa…Reference 3 examined the management of the zero-point and specimen displacement corrections in extracting lattice parameters from Bragg- Brentano x-ray diffraction data by Rietveld analysis. This paper emphasises the importance of pre-determinin…
IN SITU HIGH-TEMPERATURE STUDY OF SILVER BEHENATE REDUCTION TO SILVER METAL USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, T. BLANTON, M. LELENTAL, S. ZDZIESZYNSKI, S.T. MISTURE, PP. 371-376T. Blanton, M. Lelental, S. Zdzieszynski, S.T. Misture…The silver metal (Ag°) image formation in these imaging elements is based on the heat-induced reduction of the silver behenate. The completed reduction process has historically been studied by conventional X-ray diffraction techniques. To enhanc…
IN-SITU XRD TO OPTIMIZE POWDER SYNTHESIS OF AURIVILLIUS PHASES, M.S. HALUSKA, S.A. SPEAKMAN, S.T. MISTURE, PP. 110-116M.S. Haluska, S.A. Speakman, S.T. Misture…Powd were prepared via conventional solid-state synthesis and the Pechini polymer precursor method. The phases Bi4Ti3O12, and Bi2Sr2Nb2TiO12 were studied. The Bi4Ti3O12 phase formed easily, regardless of processing route, between 400-500oC and p…
INFLUENCE OF RENITRIDING FOR THERMAL FATIGUE PROPERTIES ON NITRIDED HOT WORK DIE STEEL (H13), K. YATSUSHIRO, M. SANO, M. HIHARA, K. OKADA, M. KURAMOTO, PP. 263-268K. Yatsushiro, M. Sano, M. Hihara, K. Okada, M. Kuramoto…We noticed a decrease of compressive residual stress on the nitrided die surface during thermal fatigue process. X-ray stress measurement was used to detect the decomposition of nitride layer on hot work die steel (H13). As a result, compressive…
JOHN CRISS COMMEMORATIVE SESSION: QUANTITATIVE XRF – OPENING REMARKS, J.V. GILFRICH, PP. 491-492Dave Ferguson…The field lost an important member when he past away on December 8th, 2000, shortly before his 60th birthday. His major contribution, but certainly not the only one, was the development of computer programs for quantitative XRF analysis using fu…
MATRIX-INDEPENDENT XRF METHODS FOR CERTIFICATION OF STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS, J.R. SIEBER, PP. 493-504J.R. Sieber…Such methods are required to achieve accuracy, i.e., to minimize potential sources of analytical uncertainty. This paper delineates a matrix-independent method for X-ray fluorescence spectrometry that uses destructive sample preparation instead …
MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES BASED ON X-RAY DIFFRACTION, B. BENEDIKT, P.K. PREDECKI, L. KUMOSA, P. RUPNOWSKI, M. KUMOSA, PP. 218-224B. Benedikt, P.K. Predecki, L. Kumosa, P. Rupnowski, M. Kumosa…In order to further verify the results obtained, the effect of externally applied four-point bending on the measured strains and stresses in the Al inclusions was investigated. In the modeling part of this research, the state of stress in these …
MICRO STRAIN IN HMX INVESTIGATED WITH POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND CORRELATION WITH THE MECHANICAL SENSITIVITYM. Herrmann, W. Engel, H. Goebel…Samples of HMX were crystallized under varying conditions yielding different defect concentrations, and the mechanical sensitivities of the samples were measured. X-ray diffraction patterns were measured with varying diffraction geometry, and th…
MICRO-STRAIN IN Y 0.5 R 0.5 BA2CU3O 7-X (R=YB, TM, ER, HO, DY, GD, EU, SM, AND ND), E.J. PETERSON, W.L. HULTS, M. SIMPSON, J. YATES COULTER, J.L. SMITH, PP. 238-244E.J. Peterson, W.L. Hults, M. Simpson, J. Yates Coulter, J.L. Smith…Crystallite size and micro-strain information obtained from the Rietveld analysis indicated that for mixtures containing Yb, Tm, and Er, crystallite sizes were significantly larger than for those containing larger rare-earths. Micro-strain minim…
MINERAL PHASE MICROSTRUCTURE IN TEETH OF THE SHORT SPINED SEA URCHIN (LYTECHINUS VARIEGATUS) STUDIED WITH X-RAY PHASE CONTRAST IMAGING AND WITH ABSORPTION MICROTOMOGRAPHY, S.R. STOCK, T. DAHL, J. BARSS, A. VEISS, K. FEZZAA, W.K. LEE, PP. 133-138S.R. Stock, T. Dahl, J. Barss, A. Veiss, K. Fezzaa, W.K. Lee…Technology, Atlanta, GA 2Dept. of Cell & Molecular Biology, Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL 3Advanced Photon Source, Users Div. Program, Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL *On leave at Inst. for Bioengineering & Nanoscience in Advanced Medicine,…
NON-DESTRUCTIVE 3D STRUCTURAL STUDIES BY X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY, G.R. DAVIS, S.E.P. DOWKER, J.C. ELLIOTT, P. ANDERSON, H.S. WASSIF, A. BOYDE, A.E. GOODSHIP, S.R. STOCK, K. IGNATIEV, PP. 485-490G.R. Davis, S.E.P. Dowker, J.C. Elliott, P. Anderson, H.S. Wassif, A. Boyde, A.E. Goodship, S.R. Stock, K. Ignatiev…Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU. 4School of Materials Science & Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga 30332-0245. ABSTRACT X-ray microtomography (XMT) is an evolving form of 3D X-ray microscopy …
NON-TRADITIONAL POWDER CRYSTALLOGRAPHY IN THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY, J.A. KADUK, PP. 78-91J.A. Kaduk…To maximize the value added by an analysis, it is important to extract the greatest possible information from powder diffraction data. With these examples, I hope to illustrate the structural details which can be obtained from powder patterns, a…
POLYCAPILLARY OPTICS AND X-RAY ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES, Y. YAN, W.M. GIBSON, PP. 298-305Y. Yan, W.M. Gibson…Strongly focused X-ray beams can greatly increase the sensitivity and spatial resolution for micro x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) studies. Recent high-resolution measurements with position sensitive diffraction spectrometer (PSDS) detectors have show…
POLYCAPILLARY OPTICS BASED NEUTRON FOCUSING FOR SMALL SAMPLE NEUTRON CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, W.M. GIBSON, H.H. CHEN MAYER, D.F.R. MILDNER, H.J. PRASK, A.J. SCHULTZ, R. YOUNGMAN, T. GNUPEL-HEROLD, M.E. MILLER, R. VITT, PP. 306-312W.M. Gibson, H.H. Chen-Mayer, D.F.R. Mildner, H.J. Prask, A.J. Schultz, R. Youngman, T. Gnaupel-Herold, M.E. Miller, R. Vitt…We have used a polycapillary focusing optic to focus neutrons from a monochromatic beam (using the BT-8 spectrometer on the NIST research reactor) and from a polychromatic beam at a pulsed spallation source (the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, IP…
POLYCAPILLARY OPTICS FOR ANGULAR FILTERING OF X-RAYS AND NEUTRONS IN TWO DIMENSIONS, W.M. GIBSON, H. HUANG, J. NICOLICH, P. KLEIN, C.A. MACDONALD, PP. 313-318W.M. Gibson, H. Huang, J. Nicolich, P. Klein, C.A. MacDonald…The use of such angular filters is shown to be important for medical imaging to give contrast and resolution improvement, for improved spatial resolution and contrast for radiological in-raging, as two-dimensional collimators for diffraction mea…
POLYCAPILLARY OPTICS: AN ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR NEW APPLICATIONS, D. GIBSON, W. GIBSON, PP. 286-297D. Gibson, W. Gibson…Development of compact X-ray sources, matched to the optic input requirements have allowed large reduction of the size, power, and weight of x-ray systems which are now resulting in development of compact X-ray instruments for portable, remote o…
PREDICTING FATIGUE FAILURE USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL X-RAY DETECTOR, R.G. TISSOT, M.O. EATOUGH, R.P. GOEHNER, PP. 54-59R.G. Tissot, M.O. Eatough, R.P. Goehner…Decreases in the spottiness of the rings and peak broadening can be readily observed and measured. This paper examines changes of the Debye ring for FCC metal structures at various stages (cycles) of “cold working” and how these changes may be u…
QUANTIFICATION OF GALLIUM IN DRIED RESIDUE SAMPLES BY XRF: AN IMPROVED SAMPLE PREPARATION METHOD FOR ANALYZING PLUTONIUM METAL, C.G. WORLEY, PP. 421-426C.G. Worley…To prepare homogenous specimens and to add an internal standard, the plutonium must first be dissolved. The currently established method then entails removing the plutonium by chromatography and analyzing the gallium remaining in solution. In th…
QUANTIFICATION OF MERCURY, LEAD, AND CADMIUM IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ENERGY K X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY, P. SUWANATHADA, T.A. DEVOL, PP. 505-510P. Suwanathada, T.A. DeVol…The EDXRF system consisted of a 31 MBq (1/2001) 57Co excitation source, one of two low-energy high-purity germanium (HPGe) semiconductor detectors coupled with standard NIM electronics and a data acquisition system. The K X-ray fluorescence from…
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LOW-Z ELEMENTS IN TOTAL REFLECTION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY, M. DOI, M. YAMAGAMI, T. SHOJI, T. YAMADA, PP. 533-538M. Doi, M. Yamagami, T. Shoji, T. Yamada…The backgrounds from the tailing of a large Si-Kα peak are undesirable especially for the analysis of Al. Thus, X-ray radiation with excitation energies below the Si K absorption edge should be used to eliminate the Si-Kα peak. The W-Mα line fro…
RIETVELD REFINEMENT OF LICOO2-TYPE LAYERED STRUCTURES: SEMI-QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LI CONTENTS, M.A. RODRIGUEZ, D. INGERSOLL, D.H. DOUGHTY, PP. 182-187M.A. Rodriguez, D. Ingersoll, D.H. Doughty…With careful XRD data collection, refinement, and proper calibration, accurate values can be obtained. Rietveld refinement tends to under-predict the Li occupancy values in charged (de-lithiated) cathodes as compared to ICP measurements. A Li-gr…
RIETVELD REFINEMENT OF POWDER DATA FROM MULTILAYER OPTICS, S.T. MISTURE, PP. 166-171S.T. Misture…Data collected using a parabolic multilayer optic in the incident beam and either a long Soller collimator or a flat multilayer optic in the diffracted beam were evaluated. NIST Standard Reference Material SRM64OC (silicon) was used in the analy…
RIETVELD STRUCTURE REFINEMENT OF CARBONATE AND SULFITE ETTRINGITE, D.G. GRIER, E.L. JARABEK, R.B. PETERSON, L.E. MERGEN, G.J. MCCARTHY, PP. 194-199D.G. Grier, E.L. Jarabek, R.B. Peterson, L.E. Mergen, G.J. McCarthy…Phases with the ettringite structure occur as hydration products of many cement and coal combustion by-products (CCBs) systems. Structural refinements of carbonate and sulfite ettringite were performed using Rietveld techniques. The present stud…
SELFCONSISTENT DETERMINATION OF THE X-RAY ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS FOR ARBITRARY CRYSTAL SYMMETRY, N. KOCH, H. WERN, PP. 200-205N. Koch, H. Wern…Usually they are calculated from the corresponding single crystal data assuming some models such as Voigt, Reuss or Kröner. In this paper, the finite element method is used to guarantee both, stress equilibrium and strain compatibility across th…
SIGNIFICANCE OF EXPERIMENTAL ERRORS IN RESIDUAL STRESS DETERMINATIONS USING THETA : THETA DIFFRACTOMETERS, H.W. KING, S.H. FERGUSON, S. GURSAN, M. YILDIZ, PP. 232-237H.W. King, S.H. Ferguson, S. Gursan, M. Yildiz…The effectiveness of this offset is examined by measuring the residual stress in a PVD film of TiN deposited on a stainless steel substrate. An anticipated error associated with backlash in the gear as the detector, or X-ray tube, is traversed b…
SIMULTANEOUS XRF/XRD WITH LOW-POWER X-RAY TUBES, S. CORNABY, A. REYES-MENA, P.W. MOODY, T. HUGHES, A. STRADLING, T. GROW, L.V. KNIGHT, PP. 34-40S. Cornaby, A. Reyes-Mena, P.W. Moody, T. Hughes, A. Stradling, T. Grow, L.V. Knight…X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) information using a charge-coupled device (CCD) as the X-ray detector. NASA is funding the instrument’s construction because of its low-power consumption and compact size; it could be used for…
SR-XRF INVESTIGATION OF HUMAN BONE, P. WOBRAUSCHEK, G. PEPPONI, C. STRELI, C. JOKUBONIS, G. FALKENBERG, W. OSTERODE, PP. 478-484P. Wobrauschek, G. Pepponi, C. Streli, C. Jokubonis, G. Falkenberg, W. Osterode…Among mineral and heavy elements, Pb has been proven to exert adverse effects in men with T1/2 in human bone that ranges between 6-12 years. Thus, bone of a hip-operated adult patient was sliced perpendicular to the SC/SS transition and investig…
STRESS ERRORS ASSOCIATED WITH MINIATURIZATION OF X-RAY STRESS ANALYZER, T. GOTO, Y. GONG, PP. 257-262T. Goto, Y. Gong…The stress errors were calculated using a model and a simulation method. It was found that they tend to increase with the decrease in goniometer radius and effective collimator length. Therefore, the minimum size of the analyzer was investigated…
STRUCTURAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF IRIDIUM FILMS ANNEALED IN AIR, S. KOHLI, D. NILES, C.D. RITHNER, P.K. DORHOUT, PP. 352-358S. Kohli, D. Niles, C.D. Rithner, P.K. Dorhout…Glancing Angle X- ray Diffraction (GAXRD) and X-ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurements were used for the structural investigations of the films. GAXRD and X-ray reflectivity measurements showed growth of ~4nm IrO2 over-layer by annealing at 873K. I…
SULFATE ATTACK OF PORTLAND CEMENT STUDIED BY X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY (MICRO-CT), S.R. STOCK, K. IGNATIEV, A.P. WILKINSON, N. NAIK, K.E. KURTIS, PP. 128-132S.R. Stock, K. Ignatiev, A.P. Wilkinson, N. Naik, K.E. Kurtis…Bioengineering & Nanoscience in Advanced Medicine, Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL, USA ABSTRACT Attack of Portland cement by ambient sulfates presents a considerable risk to structures in some environments. In this study, x-ray microtomography,…
SURFACE AREA OF INTERSTRATIFIED PHYLLOSILICATES IN ATHABASCA OIL SANDS FROM SYNCHROTRON XRD, O.E. OMOTOSO, R.J. MIKULA, P.W. STEPHENS, PP. 391-396O.E. Omotoso, R.J. Mikula, P.W. Stephens…ABSTRACT The surface area of the individual phyllosilicates (clay minerals) in Athabasca oil sands determined from XRD crystallite size measurements was found to be comparable to the bulk surface area measured by ethylene glycol monoethyl ether …
SYNCHROTRON X-RAY AND NEUTRON FIBER DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF CELLULOSE POLYMORPHS, Y. NISHIYAMA, H. CHANZY, M. WADA, J. SUGIYAMA, K. MAZEAU, T. FORSYTH, C. RIEKEL, M. MUELLER, B. RASMUSSEN, P. LANGAN, PP. 385-390Y. Nishiyama, H. Chanzy, M. Wada, J. Sugiyama, K. Mazeau, T. Forsyth, C. Riekel, M. Mueller, B. Rasmussen, P. Langan…Wood Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto 61 l-001 1, Japan. dInstitut Laue Langevin, 156X38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France. “Physics Department, Keele University Staffs ST5 5BG, UK. fEuropean Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38042 Gr…
SYSTEMATIC ERRORS IN METAL STRIP DIFFRACTION FURNACES, S.T. MISTURE, C.R. HUBBARD, X.L. WANG, PP. 25-30S.T. Misture, C.R. Hubbard, X.L. Wang…These data demonstrate that careful consideration of systematic sample displacement and temperature is necessary to obtain reliable results. A comparison of results with and without calibrations to remove the systematic errors shows that ignorin…
TEMPERATURE-INDUCED CONTRAST VARIATION AS A TOOL FOR CHARACTERIZING ANISOTROPIC POLYMER MICROSTRUCTURES, J.D.BARNES, R. KOLB, W. BRAS, PP. 72-77J.D.Barnes, R. Kolb, W. Bras…Barrier properties, tear resistance, op- tical clarity, and toughness are just a few examples of attributes that are heavily influenced by the morphology found in materials made from semicrystalline thermoplastics. Small-angle scattering (SAS) m…
TEXTURE AND PRESS FORMABILITY OF DUAL-PHASE STAINLESS STEEL SHEET, T. GOTO, T. KONDOH, T. SASAKI, Y. HIROSE, H. INOUE, PP. 269-274T. Goto, T. Kondoh, T. Sasaki, Y. Hirose, H. Inoue…Metallurgy and Materials Science, Osaka Pref. University Sakai-shi, Osaka 599-8531, Japan ABSTRACT The press formability of a dual-phase stainless steel sheet consisting of ferrite and austenite phases was estimated from a viewpoint of texture u…
THE CHANGING YEARS: 1970-1980, C.O. RUUD, PP. 3-6C.O. Ruud…I had spent ten years working in industry in manufacturing and completed a Masters Degree in Metallurgy evenings at San Jose State University. I was considering studying for a Ph.D. when I was accepted to the Graduate Program at Denver. The Meta…
THE CHANGING YEARS: 1980-1997, P. PREDECKI, PP. 7-21P. Predecki, The University of Denver, Denver, CO…The data on which the trend plots are based are collected in a spreadsheet in the appendix. INTRODUCTION It all started for me one day in the summer of 1979 when Clay Ruud came into my office and started to tell me where the X-ray Conference fil…
THE LINE OVERLAP CORRECTION BY THEORETICAL INTENSITY, Y. YAMADA, Y. KATAOKA, N. KAWAHARA, H. KOHNO, J. MARTIN, A. MARTIN, PP. 427-432Y. Yamada, Y. Kataoka, N. Kawahara, H. Kohno, J. Martin, A. Martin…There are the conventional overlap correction methods using measured intensities and concentrations of interfering elements. However, there are applications to which methods cannot to be applied in the analyses of multi-layer thin films. The ove…
THE NAMES BEHIND THE DENVER CONFERENCE AWARDS: THE BIRKS AWARD IN X-RAY SPECTROMETRY, J.V. GILFRICH, PP. 22-24Dave Ferguson…INTRODUCTION The Birks Award in X-ray Spectrometry was created by the Denver X-ray Conference in honor of Laverne Stanfield (Verne) Birks, Jr. and his contributions to the field. The Award is presented in alternate years at the beginning of the …
THE RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT OF TICN PVD FILMS, S. TAKAGO, M. GOTOH, T. SASAKI, Y. HIROSE, PP. 365-370S. Takago, M. Gotoh, T. Sasaki, Y. Hirose…To measure the mechanical property of the TiCN coating material treated at a high temperature, it is important to improve the quality of the product used under this condition. The X-ray diffraction technique enables us to measure the internal st…
THE VERY EARLY YEARS OF THE DENVER X-RAY CONFERENCE, W.M. MUELLER, PP. 1-2W.M. Mueller…Isadore Fankuchen of Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. Jim and I had been graduate students at the Colorado School of Mines. Jim was head of the Metallurgy Division of the Denver Research Institute. In my last year or so at Mines before completing…
TOTAL REFLECTION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES, M. SCHMELING, PP. 544-553M. Schmeling…Atmospheric aerosols were taken hourly at different days in 2000 and 2001. One diurnal set out of these samples is selected and discussed in detail. Lake Michigan water samples were collected sporadically throughout the year as well as precipita…
TXRF FOR SEMICONDUCTOR APPLICATIONS, Y. MORI, PP. 523-532Y. Mori…In order to achieve reliable quantification, a method for preparing standard and crosscheck samples, named “Immersion in Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Solution (IAP),” is proposed. The method of- fers a good level of reproducibility of depth profil…
TXRF TO MONITOR FOR HIGH K DIELECTRIC MATERIAL CONTAMINATION IN A SEMICONDUCTOR FAB, C. SPARKS, M. BEEBE, PP. 517-522C. Sparks, M. Beebe…There was good correlation between results obtained by TXRF and results from vapor phase decomposition inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (VPD-ICP-MS) until the detection limits of the TXRF were reached at ~1E10 atoms/cm2. Calibration …
USABILITY OF PORTABLE X-RAY SPECTROMETER FOR DISCRIMINATION OF VALENCE STATES, I.A. BRYTOV, R.I. PLOTNIKOV, B.D. KALININ, PP. 409-414I.A. Brytov, R.I. Plotnikov, B.D. Kalinin…In the case of iron, chromium and uranium compounds with different oxidation states, the usability of the spectrometer for measuring chemical shifts and for the assay of transition metal oxidation states has been demonstrated. INTRODUCTION In ce…
USE OF ACCURATE STRUCTURE DATA FROM X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTION TO SIMULATE THE MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF RARE EARTHS, J. HOLSA, M. LAHTINEN, M. LASTUSAARI, J. NITTYKOSKI, R.S. PUCHE, J. VALKONEN, PP. 98-103J. Holsa, M. Lahtinen, M. Lastusaari, J. Nittykoski, R.S. Puche, J. Valkonen…Box 35, FIN-40351 Jyväskylä, Finland, 4 Graduate School of Materials Research, Turku, Finland, 5 Universidad Complutense, Facultad Ciencias Químicas, Departamento de Química Inorgánica I, Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid, Spain. ABSTRACT The…
USE OF IN-SITU XRD TO DEVELOP CONDUCTING CERAMICS WITH THE AURIVILLIUS CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, S.A. SPEAKMAN, V.B. MODI, M.S. HALUSKA, S.T. MISTURE, PP. 117-122S.A. Speakman, V.B. Modi, M.S. Haluska, S.T. Misture…Order-disorder transformations have been linked to transitions to fast ion conduction in certain oxygen-deficient phases, such as Bi2Sr2Nb2AlO11.5 and Bi2Sr2Nb2GaO11.5. Bi2La2Ti3O12 and Bi2Sr2Nb2TiO12 were synthesized and indexed as body-centere…
X-RAY ANALYSIS OF RESIDUAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN WELD REGION, J.T. ASSIS, V. MONIN, J.R. TEODOSIO, T. GUROVA, PP. 225-231J.T. Assis, V. Monin, J.R. Teodosio, T. Gurova…ABSTRACT Distribution of residual stresses arising after welding is quite complex and inhomogeneous. Many factors have influence on the magnitude and the profile of the stress distribution curve. In the present paper an x-ray technique was used …
X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF CATALYSTS FOR EXHAUST AFTERTREATMENT, R.D. ENGLAND, H. FANG, T.R. WATKINS, M.J. LANCE, D. BLOM, PP. 139-145R.D. England, H. Fang, T.R. Watkins, M.J. Lance, D. Blom…The study of these surface species is critical in understanding the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters necessary for catalytic model development and design. In this study, the Raman response was calibrated to a known physical measurement of th…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDY ON HIGHLY ORDERED MESOSTRUCTURED THIN FILMS, T. NOMA, H. MIYATA, K. TAKADA, A. IIDA, PP. 359-364T. Noma, H. Miyata, K. Takada, A. Iida…The mesochannels in the film are aligned perpendicular to the rubbing direction. To analyze the mesostructured thin films we used a conventional line-focus x-ray diffraction and a two-dimensional (2-D) X-ray diffraction using a synchrotron X-ray…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDY ON THE FORMATION OF ULTRAFINE NANOSTRUCTURES BY CRYSTALLIZATION OF METALLIC GLASSES, N. MATTERN, PP. 104-109N. Mattern…Addition of iron in amorphous (Zr65Al7.5Cu17.5Ni10)100-xFex (0 ≤ x ≤ 20) leads to a changed crystallization sequence and to the formation of nanocrystals. The formation of a cubic NiTi2-type phase (S.G. mFd 3 , ao=1.22 nm) is the first step of c…
X-RAY FLUORESCENCE MICROANALYSIS OF BIOMEDICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLESM. Lankosz, M. Boruchowska, J. Ostachowicz, D. Adamek, B. Tomik…The main goal of this research was topographic and quantitative evaluation of selected elements in tissue samples from the human brain. MXRF spectrometry utilizing capillary optics with an effective micro-beam diameter of about 300 µm was applie…
X-RAY FOCUSING CRYSTAL VON HAMOS SPECTROMETER WITH A CCD LINEAR ARRAY AS A DETECTOR, A. SHEVELKO, L. KNIGHT, Q. WANG, O. YAKUSHEV, P.N. LEBEDEV, PP. 433-440A. Shevelko, L. Knight, Q. Wang, O. Yakushev, P.N. Lebedev…The commercial CCD (Toshiba model TCD 1304AP) used for x-ray detection has 3724 pixels (8 µm width and 200 µm height) giving a total length of ~30 mm. The CCD detector was absolutely calibrated using laser-produced plasmas. The sensitivity of th…
X-RAY OPTICS FOR TWO-DIMENSIONAL DIFFRACTION, B.B. HE, U. PRECKWINKEL, PP. 332-337B.B. He, U. Preckwinkel…IINTRODUCTION A two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (XRD2) system has both the capability of acquiring diffraction patterns in 2D space simultaneously, and analyzing the 2D diffraction data accordingly [1-3]. In an XRD2 system the function of X-ra…
X-RAY STRESS MEASUREMENT FOR NI-AL SYSTEM INTERMETALLIC COMPOUND PREPARED BY SHS-METHOD, T. MUROTANI, J. HE, T. SASAKI, H. HIROSE, PP. 275-279T. Murotani, J. He, T. Sasaki, H. Hirose…The Ni3Al was using the coating material for spherical carbon cast iron substrate and austenite stainless steel substrate. Dif- ferences between the coefftcient of thermal expansion of the coating and substrate were c onlirmed to be the source o…
XRD PEAK BROADENING EFFECTS IN U-MO ALPHA” PHASE, E. DABUSH, J. SARIEL, I. DAHAN, G. KIMMEL, PP. 146-151E. Dabush, J. Sariel, I. Dahan, G. Kimmel…One of these phases α″ is characterized by its high strength and ductility. X-ray diffraction of mechanically polished specimens of U-Mo exhibits broadened lines associated with the surface grinding. Broadened diffraction lines are unfavorable f…
XRF ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE CATALYSTS BY FLUX/FUSION, A.R. DREWS, PP. 472-477A.R. Drews…This effect is pronounced in automated fusion machines that vigorously agitate the crucible over a gas flame. In this report I describe a fusion technique that overcomes the problem of precious metal alloying and that yields good results for the…


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2000 – VOL44

A COMPACT X-RAY SPECTROMETER WITH MULTI-CAPILLARY X-RAY LENS AND FLAT CRYSTALS, H. SOEJIMA, T. NARUSAWA, PP. 320-324H. Soejima, Shimadzu Scientific Research, Kyoto, Japan, T. Narusawa, Kochi University of Technology, Kochi, Japan…This spectrometer has a simple and compact construction with good performance for small area analysis. A multi-capillary x-ray lens, a device that collects fluorescent x-rays from a selected sample area of diameter 0.1 mm or less and collimates …
A CONTINUOUS ELECTRON DENSITY APPROACH IN RIETVELD ANALYSIS FOR STRUCTURE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE MESOPOROUS SILICATE MATERIALS, L.A. SOLOVYOV, S.D. KIRIK, A.N. SHMAKOV, V.N. ROMANNIKOV, PP. 110-115L.A. Solovyov, S.D. Kirik, Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Krasnoyarsk, Russia, A.N. Shmakov, V.N. Romannikov, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk, Russia…An analytical function was exploited to simulate the continuous electron density. The function arguments were used as refinable structure parameters. The technique allows both the least-squares refinement of structural parameters using the full-…
A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF LINE OVERLAP CORRECTIONS IN X-RAY SPECTROMETRY, L.E. CREASY, PP. 361-367L.E. Creasy, Titanium Metals Corporation, Morgantown, PA…However, the overlap function is not a constant, even within the scope of a normal calibration set, and it becomes zero before the concentration of the interfering element reaches zero. By treating the overlap as a variable background and measur…
ACCURATE QUANTIFICATION OF DRIED RESIDUE THIN FILMS USING X-RAY FLUORESCENCE, C.G. WORLEY, G.J. HAVRILLA, PP. 392-397C.G. Worley, G.J. Havrilla, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM…To ensure that homogenous specimens are examined, plutonium is dissolved in dilute HCl and HNOJ prior to analysis. In the preliminary work here, non-radioactive aqueous gallium standards were prepared, and zinc was added as an internal standard …
ADVANCE AND FUNCTION OF GEOCHEMICAL MAPPING USING WAVELENGTH DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY IN CHINA, G. MA, G. LIANG, L. LUO, X. ZHAN, G. LI, PP. 419-424G. Ma, G. Liang, L. Luo, X. Zhan, National Research Center of Geological Analysis, Beijing, China, G. Li, Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, Hebei, China…The regional geochemistry maps of 1:200000 scales were prepared. It is necessary to analyze 39 elements in the national geochemical maps. In 1983 China’s regional and some provincial centers of geological analysis used two main methods for the a…
AN ELASTIC CONSTANTS DATABASE AND XEC CALCULATOR FOR USE IN XRD RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS, A.C. VERMEULEN, PP. 128-133A.C. Vermeulen, Philips Analytical, Almelo, The Netherlands…Calculation models like Voigt, Reuss and Hill are included for materials with cu.bic, hexagonal and tetragonal crystal symmetry. Checks are performed on the data entries in order to prevent the introduction of new typing errors. Checks on consis…
AN EVALUATION OF XRD AND XRF METHODS USED IN AN ALUMINUM BATH ANALYSIS, S. KIRIK, I. YAKIMOV, PP. 85-90S. Kirik, Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Krasnoyarsk, Russia, I. Yakimov, Academy of Non-ferrous Metals and Gold, Krasnoyarsk, Russia…Among two approaches XRD meets technological requirements on accuracy, time limit and the cost of analysis. XRF demonstrates insufficient accuracy because of sample preparation problem. INTRODUCTION The electrolysis cell used in the production o…
AN INSTRUMENT FOR RAPID TEXTURE MAPPING ON 200 MM WAFERS, K.J. KOZACZEK, R.I. MARTIN, D.S. KURTZ, P.R. MORAN, S.P. O’LEARY, R.L. MARTIN, PP. 266-271K.J. Kozaczek, R.I. Martin, D.S. Kurtz, P.R. Moran, S.P. O’Leary, R.L. Martin, HyperNex, Inc., State College, PA…Such measurements are slow and limited to small samples. Recent advances in x-ray detector technology and x-ray optics paved the road to moving x-ray diffraction from analytical applications to quality control. Automation, high throughput, and f…
AN INVESTIGATION OF GIANT MAGNETORESISTANCE (GMR) SPIN-VALVE STRUCTURES USING X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND REFLECTIVITY, E. BROWN, M. WORMINGTON, PP. 290-294E. Brown, EB Scientific Enterprises, Golden, CO, M. Wormington, Bede Scientific Incorporated, Englewood, CO…X-ray reflectivity analysis indicated that layer thickness and density values were within 10% percent of the nominal values with the exception of CoFe and Cu layers, both of which possessed lower than nominal thickness and density. Interface rou…
AN X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDY OF TRIPHENYL BASED DISCOTIC LIQUID CRYSTALS, T. BLANTON, H.P. CHEN, J. MASTRANGELO, S.H. CHEN, PP. 18-23T. Blanton, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY, H.P. Chen, J. Mastrangelo, S.H. Chen, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY…Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM) were utilized to identify the presence of the mesophases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques confirmed that these liquid crystalline materials were discotic. The hexa…
AN XRD STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF THE LABORATORY SYNTHESIZED CRYSTALS OF MGNB2O6 (MN) AND PBMG1/3NB2/3O3 (PMN), C.O. PAIVA-SANTOS, A.A. CAVALHEIRO, M.A. ZAGHETE, M. CILENSE, J.A. VARELA, M.T. SILVA, GIOTTO, Y.P. MASCARENHAS, PP. 38-43C.O. Paiva-Santos, A.A. Cavalheiro, M.A. Zaghete, M. Cilense, J.A. Varela, UNESP.Araraquara, SP Brazil, M.T. Silva Giotto, UFSCar. Sao Carlos, SP Brazil, Y.P. Mascarenhas, USP. Sao Carlos, SP Brazil…Instituto de Química, UNESP. Araraquara, SP. Brazil. http://labcacc.iq.unesp.br. e-mail:copsanto@iq.unesp.br 2. Lab. Interdisciplinar em Cerâmica. Instituto de Química, UNESP. Araraquara, SP Brazil. 3. Depto de Engenharia Quimica, UFSCar. São Ca…
ANALYSIS OF PIGMENTS USED IN THE SCROLL PAINTINGS OF A NATIONAL TREASURE “TALE OF GENJI” USING A PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETER, K. SUGIHARA, K. TAMUARA, M. SATOH, Y. HAYAKAWA, Y. HIRAO, S. MIURA, H. YOTSUTSUJI, Y. TOKUGAWA, PP. 432-441K. Sugihara, K. Tamuara, M. Satoh, Seiko Instruments, Inc., Chiba, Japan, Y. Hayakawa, Y. Hirao, S. Miura, Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, Tokyo, Japan, H. Yotsutsuji, Y. Tokugawa, Tokugawa Art Museum, Aichi, Japan…However, it is hard to analyze a sample at the site by conventional XRF. In order to solve this problem, a portable XRF has been developed. The pigments used in the Scroll Paintings of the Tale of Genji in the possession of the Tokugawa Art Muse…
ANALYSIS OF RESIDUAL STRESS STATE IN SPEED GEARS FOR AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES, T. GUROVA, J.R. TEODOSIO, V. MONINE, PP. 187-194T. Gurova, J.R. Teodosio, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, V. Monine, Instituto Politecnico do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, Brasil…CEP 21945970, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. e-mail: teodosio~,~~etal~at. ufri. br gurovajl&zetalmat. u frj. br ABSTRACT Residual stress profiles in speed gears for automotive vehicles were determined. The profiles were: measured at the root between tw…
ANALYTICAL MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETER, W. CHANG, J. KERNER, E. FRANCO, PP. 325-328W. Chang, J. Kerner and E. Franco, ARACOR, Sunnyvale, CA…The key component of this system is a monocapillary X-ray optic that has been optimized for intensity throughput. INTRODUCTION Monocapillary X-ray optics are a promising technology for producing intense microbeams of X rays.’ When coupled with l…
APPLICATIONS OF FAST X-RAY REFLECTOMETRY – A NEW TOOL FOR IN-SITU THIN FILM ANALYSIS, D.K. AGNIHOTRI, R. ORTEGA, PP. 302-307D.K. Agnihotri, R. Ortega, Rigaku/USA, The Woodlands, TX…Conventional XRR measurement can take anywhere from 45 minutes to couple hours, limiting its application to mostly research and development. We have developed a tool based on “Angle-Dispersive Fast X-ray Reflectometry (Fast-XRR)“, which can perf…
APPLYING THE RIETVELD METHOD TO MINERAL FILLED POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE COMPOUNDS, R.W. MORTON, J.J. GISLASON, R.L. HEALD, D.E. SIMON, J.F. GEIBEL, PP. 103-109R.W. Morton, J.J. Gislason, R.L. Heald, Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK, D.E. Simon, DES Consulting, Broken Arrow, OK, J.F. Geibel, Chevron Philips Chemical Company, Bartlesville, OK…Some of the most difficult systems to model are polymeric materials because they can be composed of amorphous, low crystalline and crystalline phases. In addition, engineering plastics like polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) are routinely tilled with a…
APPROACHING A UNIVERSAL SAMPLE PREPARATION METHOD FOR XRF ANALYSIS OF POWDER MATERIALS, J. ANZELMO, A. SEYFARTH, L. ARIAS, PP. 368-373J. Anzelmo, A. Seyfarth, L. Arias, Bruker AXS, Inc., Madison, WI…The preparation of powder samples such as silicates, carbonates, slags, cements, ferro-alloys and other powdered materials however requires careful planning in the way of additives, lubricants, binders, dilution, backing and holders. The ratio o…
AUTOMATED RIETVELD-ANALYSIS OF LARGE NUMBERS OF DATASETS, S. VOGEL, H.-G. PRIESMEYER, PP. 91-95S. Vogel, H.-G. Priesmeyer, Christian-Albrechts-Universitat Kiel, Kiel, Germany…Automation of the data analysis process is mandatory to perform for example a long sequence of Rietveld refinements. The Bragg edge transmission (BET) technique, a neutron time-of-flight method, allows acquiring patterns of sufficient statistics…
CALCULATION OF MAJOR CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC POLES ALONG ODF FIBERS PARALLEL TO THE GAMMA FIBER, S.H. MAGNER, B.M. WILSON, R.J. DE ANGELIS, PP. 257-265S.H. Magner, B.M. Wilson, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, R.J. De Angelis, University of Florida, Shalimar, FL…The term to describe a preferred distribution of grain orientations in a metal is called texture. An understanding of a metal’s texture and how it changes as a function of processing is needed to tailor the properties of the product. A method, b…
CALIBRATION OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE X-RAY DIFFRACTION STAGE BY DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL EXPANSION, A.R. DREWS, PP. 44-49A.R. Drews, Ford Research Laboratories, Dearborn, MI…This method utilizes the relative thermal expansion of two diffraction peaks, either for peaks from a mixture of phases, or from a single phase that has anisotropic thermal expansion. A calibration function is derived from data at many temperatu…
CHARACTERIZATION OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION SYSTEM WITH A MICROFOCUS X-RAY SOURCE AND A POLYCAPILLARY OPTIC, M. GUBAREV, M. JOY, E. CISZAK, I. PONOMAREV, PP. 278-283M. Gubarev, M. Joy, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, E. Ciszak, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL and Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL, I. Ponomarev, X-ray Optical Systems, Inc., Albany, NY…The x-ray beam is formed by a 5.5mm input focal length capillary collimator coupled with a 40 micron x-ray source operating at 46Watts. Measurements of the x-ray flux, the divergence and the spectral characteristics of the beam are presented. Th…
COMPARISON OF LABORATORY-BASED X-RAY MICRODIFFRACTION AND ELECTRON BACKSCATTER DIFFRACTION FOR PHASE IDENTIFICATION, J.R. VERKOUTEREN, J.A. SMALL, J.R. MICHAEL, PP. 69-74J.R. Verkouteren, J.A. Small, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, J.R. Michael, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM…EBSD is capable of phase identification of single particles down to approximately 100 nm in size, and x-ray microdiffraction is capable of phase identification of powders down to tenths of nanograms in mass. EBSD is clearly the better technique …
COMPARISON OF THREE UNIVERSAL CURVES FOR THE ESCAPE PROBABILITY OF X-RAY EXCITED ELECTRONS: I. THEORY, H. EBEL, R. SVAGERA, M.F. EBEL, W.S.M. WERNER, PP. 380-385H. Ebel, R. Svagera, M.F. Ebel, W.S.M. Werner, Technische Universitat Wien, Wien, Austria…In his investigations of a universal curve for escape probabilities in total electron yield XAS Schroeder’ describes the escape probability P(x) of electrons from a depth x in units of the Bethe range RB by The expression holds for an electron e…
COMPARISON OF THREE UNIVERSAL CURVES FOR THE ESCAPE PROBABILITY OF X-RAY EXCITED ELECTRONS: II. EVALUATION OF LAYER THICKNESSES DETERMINED BY TOTAL ELECTRON YIELD (TEY), H. EBEL, R. SVAGERA, M.F. EBEL, W.S.M. WERNER, PP. 386-391H. Ebel, R. Svagera, M.F. Ebel, W.S.M. Werner, Technische Universitat Wien, Wien, Austria…Layer thicknesses were chosen from a few nanometers up to several hundred nanometers and the electron energies covered a range from approximately 1 keV up to 20 keV. The essential result of TEY-measurements is that the layer thicknesses from TEY…
COMPLETE POLE FIGURE MEASUREMENT USING ONLY BACK-REFLECTION METHOD WITH IMAGING PLATE AND APPLICATION TO THREE-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF TEXTURE, T. GOTO, T. KONDOH, H. HIROSE, T. SASAKI, PP. 272-277T. Goto, T. Kondoh, Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, Japan, H. Hirose, Kinjyo College, Mattou, Japan, T. Sasaki, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan…Pole density data of them were effectively applied to three-dimensional analysis of texture. INTRODUCTION In this study, complete pole figure measurement using only a back-reflection method with an imaging plate (IP) was attempted. In our method…
COMPOSITION DEPENDENCE OF X-RAY ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF TITANIUM ALUMINIDE INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, T. KONDOH, T. GOTO, T. SASAKI, Y. HIROSE, PP. 209-214T. Kondoh, T. Goto, Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, Japan, T. Sasaki, Y. Hirose, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan…X-ray Elastic constants in both phases of various aluminum compositions were measured. As compared with mechanically determined elastic constants, the X-ray elastic constants showed microstructure dependence. The microscopic stress-states of the…
DETERMINATION OF FLUORESCENCE YIELDS USING MONOCHROMATIZED UNDULATOR RADIATION OF HIGH SPECTRAL PURITY AND WELL-KNOWN FLUX, B. BECKHOFF, G. ULM, PP. 349-354B. Beckhoff, G. Ulm, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany…Here, improving the knowledge of accurate values of the fluorescence yields for photon energies below 2 keV becomes a major task. For this purpose, an irradiation chamber was built by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany’s na…
DETERMINATION OF THE ELECTRON DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN TETRAGONAL BATIO3 USING THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD, J. HARADA, K. YUGAMI, M. SAKATA, E. NISHIBORI, M. TAKATA, Y. AKISHIGE, T. NAKATA, H. TANAKAC, Y. KUROIWA, PP. 6-11J. Harada, K. Yugami, Rigaku Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, M. Sakata, E. Nishibori, M. Takata, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, Y. Akishige, T. Nakata, H. Tanakac, Shimane University, Matsue, Japan, Y. Kuroiwa, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan…The MEM charge-density map revealed that Ba is essentially ionic, while Ti-0 bond is covalent. A difference in the charge-density distributions of Ti-0 bonds in BaTi and SrTiOa is detected, even though the Ti-0 bonds in these compounds are essen…
EDXRF ANALYSIS OF PIGMENTS OF WORKS OF ART FROM THE SPAIN’S CULTURAL HERITAGE, J.L. FERRERO, C. ROLDAN, D. JUANES, C. MORERA, E. ROLLANO, PP. 425-431J.L. Ferrero, C. Roldan, D. Juanes, C. Morera, and E. Rollano, Institut de Ciencia dels Materials de la Universitat de Valencia C/Dr. Molier, 50. E46100-Burjassot, Espana…Taking advantage of the experience of some of their members in Nuclear Instrumentation, and with the invaluable collaboration of restorers and curators of museums, we have designed several devices for X-ray fluorescence. Theses devices has been …
EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON THE STRUCTURE OF NIAL2O4, I. HALEVY, D. DRAGOI, E. USTUNDAG, A. YUE, E. ARREDONDO, J. HU, M. SOMAYAZULU, PP. 50-55I. Halevy, D. Dragoi, E. Ustundag, A. Yue, E. Arredondo, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, J. Hu, M. Somayazulu, NSLS – Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY…In this process, the larger Ni2+ ions which occupy the tetrahedral (Sa) sites in normal spine1 move i;> the octahedral (16d) sites in inverse spine1 while half of the smaller A13+ ions move in the opposite direction. The extent of this move is m…
ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS OF X-RAY STRESS ANALYSIS, N. GANEV, I. KRAUS, PP. 174-186N. Ganev, I. Kraus, Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic…Not only have residual stress measurements recently become an essential part of materials science, but they are also an indispensable tool in industry and technology. The intention of the contribution is to present the main engineering problems …
FOCUSING CRYSTAL VON HAMOS SPECTROMETERS FOR XRF APPLICATIONS, D. CLARK TURNER, A. REYES-MENA, J.D. PHILLIPS, H.K. PEW, P.W. MOODY, S. VORONOV, A.P. SHEVELKO, L.V. KNIGHT, PP. 329-335D. Clark Turner, A. Reyes-Mena, J.D. Phillips, H.K. Pew, P.W. Moody, S. Voronov, MOXTEK, Inc., Orem, UT, A.P. Shevelko, Russian Academy of Sciences, L.V. Knight, Brigham Young University…Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117924, Russia ABSTRACT In order to increase the energy resolution in XRF devices, it is necessary to use crystal-based spectrometers. We suggest a von Hamos scheme[1] of the …
FUSED BEADS FROM METAL DRILLINGS AND CHIPS EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION TO TIN-LEAD ALLOYS, J. BLANCHETTE, F. CLAISSE, PP. 405-408J. Blanchette, F. Claisse, Corporation Scientifique Claisse, Inc., Quebec, Canada…An example of application to tin-lead alloys will be described. It represents one example of the most critical cases, since tin-lead alloys melt at temperatures lower than most solid oxidizers, which will generally lead to complete destruction o…
HIGH RESOLUTION TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF THIN BLANKET FILMS DISCREET TEST STRUCTURES IN SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES, K.J. KOZACZEK, R.I. MARTIN, D.S. KURTZ, P.R. MORAN, S.P. O’LEARY, R.L. MARTIN, PP. 314-319K.J. Kozaczek, R.I. Martin, D.S. Kurtz, P.R. Moran, S.P. O’Leary, R.L. Martin, HyperNex, Inc., State College, PA…We present a method that overcomes these two drawbacks. This particular measurement protocol eliminates the sample “chi” rotation thus enabling texture analysis on a wafer with “in-plane” motion only. The wafer positioning is controlled by high …
IN SITU X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF DISORDER AND STRAIN IN ION IMPLANTED CERAMIC THIN FILMS, S. GRIGULL, M. ISHIMARU, M. NASTASI, C.A. ZORMAN, M. MEHREGANY, PP. 308-313S. Grigull, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France, M. Ishimaru, M. Nastasi, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, C.A. Zorman, M. Mehregany, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio
INFLUENCE OF TEXTURE AND ANISOTROPHY ON MICROSTRESSES AND FLOW BEHAVIOR IN A DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL DURING LOADING, J. JOHANSSON MOVERARE, M. ODEN, PP. 229-234J. Johansson Moverare, M. Oden, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden…The microstresses in the two phases were found to decrease when loading in the transverse direction, while they increase during loading in the rolling and 45°-direction. Due to strong crystallographic texture in the ferritic phase the material i…
INTELLIGENT INTERPOLATION FOR BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION – A HYBRID APPROACH FOR TRACE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS, R.A. COUTURE, PP. 355-360R.A. Couture, Washington University, St. Louis, MO…Several sources contribute. These include Compton- and Rayleigh-scattered tube continuum radiation, nondiscriminated higher-order radiation, fluorescence of instrument parts, Compton- and Rayleigh-scattered tube lines, unresolved spectral interf…
INVESTIGATION OF THE REDUCTION OF NIAL2O4, E. USTUNDAG, B. CLAUSEN, M.A.M. BOURKE, PP. 32-37E. Ustundag, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, B. Clausen, M.A.M. Bourke, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM…Because there is an accompanying volume shrinkage, residual stresses can be generated during this reaction. Using neutron powder diffrac- tion, the reduction of NiA1,04 was studied in situ to determine the mechanisms that control stress evolutio…
MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL PHASE STRESS OF THE METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE MATERIAL USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, S. TAKAGO, T. SASAKI, Y. HIROSE, K. AKITA, Y. YOSHIOKA, PP. 215-221S. Takago, T. Sasaki, Y. Hirose, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan, K. Akita, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan, Y. Yoshioka, Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan…Diffraction experiment with synchrotron radiation was performed at the Photon Factory at the high-energy accelerator research organization, Japan. Residual stress measurement using X-ray diffraction with synchrotron source is a relatively new an…
MICRO-DIFFRACTION WITH MONO-CAPILLARIES, M.J. FRANSEN, J.H.A. VASTERINK, J. TE NIJENHUIS, PP. 284-289M.J. Fransen, J.H.A. Vasterink, J. te Nijenhuis, Philips Analytical, Almelo, The Netherlands…Procedures to improve the particle statistics of the measurement are discussed. Examples are shown on phase identification and preferred orientation analysis of diamond films grown with a combustion flame and residual stress analysis of a copper…
NON-DESTRUCTIVE IN-SITU REAL-TIME MEASUREMENTS OF STRUCTURAL PHASE TRANSITIONS USING NEUTRON TRANSMISSION, S. VOGEL, H.-G. PRIESMEYER, M. BOURKE, E. USTUNDAG, J.C. HANAN, PP. 75-84S. Vogel, H.-G. Priesmeyer, Christian-Albrechts-Universitat Kiel, Kiel, Germany, M. Bourke, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, E. Ustundag, J.C. Hanan, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA…The method is based on the Bragg-edge phenomenon associated with the transmission of thermal neutrons through a material. In a transmitted spectrum the neutrons that have interacted with the sample are missing, and it is possible to derive infor…
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE X-RAY STRESS ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE IN POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS WITH HEXAGONAL CRYSTAL SYMMETRY, H. WERN, T. MAAS, N. KOCH, PP. 122-127H. Wern, T. Maas, N. Koch, HTW des Saarlandes, Saarbrucken, Germany…The finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the local strain distributions within a three-dimensional random aggregate of isotropic and orthotropic single crystals with hexagonal symmetry under uniaxial elastic tension. Calculations are …
PREDICTION OF THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF BYNARY AND TERNARY INORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING SYMMETRY RESTRICTIONS AND POWDER DIFFRACTION DATA, L. REINAUDI, P. SERRA, E.P.M. LEIVA, R.E. CARBONIO, PP. 116-121L. Reinaudi, P. Serra, E.P.M. Leiva, R.E. Carbonio, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba, Argentina…Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina. 2 Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina. ABSTRACT We undertake a set of studies using simulated annealing, conce…
PROBLEMS BY USING PRESSED POWDER PELLETS FOR XRF ANALYSIS OF FERROSILICON ALLOYS, T. EIVINDSON, O. MIKKELSEN, PP. 409-418T. Eivindson, O*. Mikkelsen, Elkem ASA Research, Norway…The origin of the problems is the heterogeneity of the solidified ferrosilicon. A variety of distinct crystallographic phases with varying X-ray absorption and grinding properties are formed from the molten metal resulting in large particle size…
PROGRESS IN X-RAY DIFFRACTION OF RESIDUAL MACRO-STRESS DETERMINATION RELATED TO SURFACE LAYER GRADIENTS AND ANISOTROPY, S.J. SKRZYPEK, A. BACZMANSKI, PP. 134-145S.J. Skrzypek, A. Baczmanski, University of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow, Poland…X-ray beam varies during m.easurement. This is particularly important in the case of coatings or surface layers where residual stresses appear with large gradients, The new version of the sin’v method, named g- sin’w (based on the grazing angle …
RESIDUAL STRAINS IN A PIGMA WELDED BERYLLIUM RINGS, D.W. BROWN, R. VARMA, M.A.M. BOURKE, P. BURGARDT, B. CLAUSEN, S. SPOONER, T. ELY, M.R. DAYMOND, PP. 162-167D.W. Brown, R. Varma, M.A.M. Bourke, P. Burgardt, B. Clausen, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, S. Spooner, T. Ely, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, M.R. Daymond, ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, United Kingdom…Using spatially resolved neutron diffraction techniques (resolution of 4.5 mm3) we have determined residual strains in the beryllium base metal using the interplanar spacings of the (1010) , )0211( and )3110( crystallographic planes as a functio…
RESIDUAL STRESSES IN TI-SIC COMPOSITES, J.C. HANAN, D. DRAGOI, E. USTUNDAG, I.C. NOYAN, D. HAEFFNER, P. LEE, PP. 156-161J.C. Hanan, D. Dragoi, E. Ustundag, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, I.C. Noyan, IBM, Yorktown Heights, NY, D. Haeffner, P. Lee, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL…First, a microdiffraction experiment that involved scanning the Ti matrix to identify individual grains reflecting at a given Bragg angle for several v tilts is presented. Then, two macrodiffraction experiments, one with Cu radiation and another…
RESIDUAL STRESSES IN TUNGSTEN/BULK METALLIC GLASS COMPOSITES, D. DRAGOI, E. USTUNDAG, B. CLAUSEN, M.A.M. BOURKE, PP. 168-173D. Dragoi, E. Ustundag, B. Clausen, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, M.A.M. Bourke, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM…The unique properties of BMGs potentially place them among significant engineering materials: very high strength (1.9 GPa) and fracture toughness (40-55 MPa.m1/2), a near theoretical specific strength, excellent wear and corrosion resistance, an…
STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL (TRADEMARK) (SRM 1990) FOR SINGLE CRYSTAL DIFFRACTOMETER ALIGNMENT, W. WONG-NG, J. ARMSTRONG, M. LEVENSON, L.P. COOK, T. SIEGRIST, G. DETITTA, L. FINGER, H. EVANS, E. GABE, G. ENRIGHT, C.R. HUBBARD, PP. 12-17W. Wong-Ng, J. Armstrong, M. Levenson, L.P. Cook, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, T. Siegrist, Lund University, Sweden, G. DeTitta, Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, Buffalo, NY, L. Finger, Geophysical Laborat…Geological Survey, Reston, VA 22092; 6Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, NRC, Ottawa, Canada KIA OR6; ‘Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 ABSTRACT Through extensive international collaborations, a Standard Reference Materi…
STUDY AND SERVICE CONTROL OF STRESS STATE OF HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL CABLES, USED IN PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES, V. MONINE, T. GUROVA, J.R. TEODOSIO, PP. 195-200V. Monine, Instituto Politecnico do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, Brasil, T. Gurova, J.R. Teodosio, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil…Ci2metulmat.ufri.br ABSTRACT Pre-stressed concrete structures are used widely in civil and industrial constructions, specially, in constructions of bridges and viaducts, where steel cables carry the main part of the load and keep service safety …
STUDY ON EVALUATION OF RESIDUAL PHASE STRESS OF THE DUAL PHASE STAINLESS STEEL, H. HIROSE, H. HASHI, T. SASAKI, PP. 222-228H. Hirose, Kinjo Junior College, Matto, Japan, H. Hashi, T. Sasaki, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan…In addition, the influence of changing depth of cut on residual stress was investigated. It was found that residual stress in the a! phase was dependent on depth of cut, while the stress in Y phase was not affected by depth of cut. As a results …
STUDY ON FRACTURE ANALYSIS OF (ALPHA + GAMMA) DUAL PHASE STAINLESS STEEL USING X-RAY DIFFRACTION, H. HIROSE, T. HAMAGAMI, T. SASAKI, PP. 62-68H. Hirose, Kinjo Junior College, Matto, Japan, T. Hamagami, T. Sasaki, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan…Effect of the rolling direction on fatigue properties was discussed. Residual stress near the surface was measured by using X-ray diffraction method to the depth direction. Relations between X-ray parameter and fracture mechanics parameter were …
TEXTURE CHARACTERIZATION IN X-RAY AND NEUTRON POWDER DIFFRACTION DATA USING THE GENERALIZED SPHERICAL-HARMONIC, H. SITEPU, H.J. PRASK, M.D. VAUDIN, PP. 241-246H. Sitepu, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD and SUNY, Stony Brook, NY, H.J. Prask, M.D. Vaudin, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD…Now at the Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum, Germany. ABSTRACT Crystallographic texture or preferred orientation can cause serious systematic errors in quantitative …
THE CNESTEN EDXRF SPECTROMETERS – SENSITIVITY, CALIBRATION, AND APPLICATION TO GEOCHEMISTRY, A. RAHMANI, F. BENYAICH, A. SAADANE, M. BOUNAKHLA, PP. 336-342A. Rahmani, F. Benyaich, A. Saadane, Universite My Ismail, Meknes, Morocco, M. Bounakhla, CNESTEN, Rabat, Morocco…In this work, we present results on the calibration of two ED-XRF spectrometers, using different excition systems: 1) Fe- 55, Cd-109 and Am-241 radioactive sources, and 2) Mo X-ray tube with Cu and Mo secondary targets. The performances and sens…
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SPECIMEN DISPLACEMENT CORRECTION IN RIETVELD PATTERN FITTING WITH SYMMETRIC REFLECTION-OPTICS DIFFRACTION DATA, B. O’CONNOR, D. LI, B. HUNTER, PP. 96-102B. O’Connor, D. Li, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia, B. Hunter, Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, Menai, Australia…Specimen transparency also results in 2θ-bias, which tends to mimic that from specimen displacement. The authors have investigated the influence of specimen displacement bias on Rietveld lattice parameters when Bragg-Brentano XRD optics are empl…
THE USE OF X-RAY REFLECTOMETRY FOR SINGLE FILM THICKNESS ANALYSIS IN GMR MULTILAYER STACKS, C. SCHUG, B. YORK, J. MARIEN, H. BLANK, PP. 295-301C. Schug, B. York, J. Marien, H. Blank, IBM Storage Technology Division…In this paper we demonstrate that X-Ray Reflectometry (XRR) analysis of the fnll GMR multilayer stack provides an absolute means to extract selected single film thicknesses with Angstrom accuracy. Secondly, we present XRR data recorded from spec…
USING A CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICE (CCD) TO GATHER X-RAY FLUORESCENCE (XRF) AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) INFORMATION SIMULTANEOUSLY, A. REYES, H.K. PEW, P. MOODY, L.V. KNIGHT, S. CORNABY, T. HUGHES, A. STRADLING, PP. 343-348A. Reyes, H.K. Pew, P. Moody, MOXTEK, Inc., Orem, UT, L.V. Knight, S. Cornaby, T. Hughes, A. Stradling, Brigham Young University…XRF and XRD information using a charge-coupled device (CCD) as the x-ray detector. This preliminary setup will lead to a prototype simultaneous XRD/XRF instrument. NASA is funding the instrument’s construction because of its capabilities and sma…
WAVELET REPRESENTATION OF DIFFRACTION POLE FIGURES, H. SCHAEBEN, J. PRESTIN, PP. 235-240H. Schaeben, J. Prestin, Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Freiberg, Germany…S2 x S2 of two unit spheres. Several useful representations of pole density functions exist which are usually related to specific purposes: (i) series expansion into spherical harmonics, (ii) series expansion into (unimodal) radial basis functio…
WHITE AND MONOCHROMATIC X-RAY MICROBEAM INVESTIGATIONS OF MATERIALS MICROSTRUCTURE AND TRI-AXIAL STRESS, B.C. LARSON, G.E. ICE, N. TAMURA, W. YANG, J.Z. TISHLER, J.S. CHUNG, J.D. BUDAI, K.S. CHUNG, H. WEILAND,W.P. LOWE, PP. 146-155B.C. Larson, G.E. Ice, N. Tamura, W. Yang, J.Z. Tishler, J.-S. Chung, J.D. Budai, K.-S. Chung, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN; H. Weiland, Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA;W.P. Lowe, Howard University, Washington D.C.…ABSTRACT The availability of high brilliance synchrotron x-ray sources and new high precision x-ray focusing optics have made possible revolutionary advances in microbeam x-ray capabilities for investigation of materials microstructure on mesosc…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION IMAGING AS A TOOL OF MESOSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS, J. FIALA, PP. 24-31J. Fiala, Skoda Research, Ltd., Plzen, Czech Republic…In our contribution, we refer to a number of cases where we managed to get valuable information on deformation, recrystallization processes using x-ray imaging, which would be unattainable by other methods. INTRODUCTION The packing of structural…
X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS BASED ON KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM, L. LUO, X. WU, L. GAN, G. LIANG, G. MA, PP. 374-379L. Luo, X. Wu, L. Gan, G. Liang, G. Ma, National Research Center of Geoanalysis, Beijing, China…Evolving factor analysis, pattern recognition and neural networks are applied to the system. For Cr, Fe and Ni in alloys, the neural network model combined with the fundamental parameters decreased the prediction errors by 1.1 to 2.8 times as co…
X-RAY MICROBEAM DIFFRACTION COMPARISON OF MESOTEXTURES IN PLATES OF THREE ALUMINUM ALLOYS, K. IGNATIEV, S.R. STOCK, Z.U. REK, PP. 56-61K. Ignatiev, S.R. Stock, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, Z.U. Rek, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Stanford, CA…Transmission Laue patterns from different parts of the samples were compared and analyzed for the presence of mesotexture similar to that observed previously in the center of plates of aluminum alloy AA 2090 (i.e., near single-crystal volumes of…
X-RAY STRESS ANALYSIS IN PRESENCE OF GRADIENTS AND TEXTURE, CH. GENZEL, PP. 247-256Ch. Genzel, Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Germany…This especially applies to materials with strong texture and/or steep re- sidual stress gradients in the near surface region, the investigation of which is an important topic in modern materials science research. On the other hand, industrial pr…
X-RAY STRESS DETERMINATION OF COLD-ROLLED STEEL SHEET USING ORIENTATION DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION, S. EJIRI, Y. SHIRASUNA, T. SASAKI, Y. HIROSE, H. INOUE, PP. 201-208S. Ejiri, Y. Shirasuna, Seisen Jogakuin College, Nagano, Japan, T. Sasaki, Y. Hirose, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan, H. Inoue, University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka, Japan…ABSTRACT Difficulties often attended determining the residual stress of cold-rolled steel sheets with crystallographic textures from the conventional X-ray stress measurement, i.e., the sin* d, technique, because the technique is constructed on …
XRD RAPID SCREENING SYSTEM FOR COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY, B.B. HE, J. ANZELMO, P. LAPUMA, U. PRECKWINKEL, K. SMITH, PP. 1-5B.B. He, J. Anzelmo, P. LaPuma, U. Preckwinkel, K. Smith, Bruker Analytical X-ray Systems, Madison, WI…Combinatorial investigations require rapid screening techniques to test and evaluate variations of composition, structure and property within a material library. X-ray diffraction is one of the most suitable screening techniques because abundant…
XRF’S ROLE IN THE PRODUCTION OF MAGNESIUM METAL BY THE MAGNATHERMIC METHOD, H.L. BAKER, PP. 398-404H.L. Baker, Northwest Alloys, Inc., Addy, WA…Finally, I will discuss how the qualitative XRF scans have helped us to solve problems that have risen from time to time. INTRODUCTION Northwest Alloys is a subsidiary of Alcoa and has been producing magnesium since early 1976. We employ a proce…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

1999 – VOL43

A GRAZING INCIDENCE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF THE COMPOSITION OF (BA,SR)TIO3 (BST) AND SRRUO3 (SRO) STACKED FILMS, S. TERADA, H. FURUKAWA, H. MURAKAMI AND K. NISHIHAGI, PP. 504-509S. Terada, H. Furukawa, H. Murakami and K. Nishihagi…INTRODUCTION BST has an extremely high dielectric constant and is therefore a promising material for the next- generation of DRAM capacitors. However, the dielectric constant of BST is strongly dependent on its composition. Therefore, a measurem…
A PORTABLE X-RAY APPARATUS FOR BOTH STRESS MEASUREMENT AND PHASE ANALYSIS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS, V. MONIN, J.R. TEODOSIO AND T. GUROVA, PP. 66-71V. Monin, J.R. Teodosio and T. Gurova…ABSTRACT The wide range of possible applications for the portable X-ray apparatus with an air cooled double-anode X-ray tube are presented. The apparatus is provided with a stress measurement unit and focusing camera for phase analysis. The dist…
ACCURACY OF XRPD MEASUREMENT VIA DIFFRACTION INSTRUMENTAL MONITORING, G. BERTI, PP. 287-292G. Berti…Reproducibility, repeatability and uncertainty are useful for evaluating the experimental observation. Precision and accuracy play a role in the results’ achievement from XRPD data collection. In order to gather accuracy and precision a set of o…
AMBIGUITIES OF MICRO AND NANO STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION, G. BERTI, PP. 293-298G. Berti…Apart from such systematic artefacts, other effects are present that are related to diffraction physics and the geometrical arrangement of the specimen’s lattice. The present paper focuses firstly on these latter effects and considers the crysta…
AN IMPROVED AEROSOL GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE PREPARATION OF XRF CALIBRATION FILTERS, C. VANHOOF, V. CORTHOUTS AND N. DE BRUCKER, PP. 449-455C. Vanhoof, V. Corthouts and N. De Brucker…X- ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) can perform quantitative analysis on filters without any pretreatment. Quantitative determination of various metals on loaded filters requires the use of calibration curves set up with synthetic filters. Fo…
AN INNOVATION IN TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT MEASUREMENT, B.B. HE AND K.L. SMITH, PP. 281-286B.B. He and K.L. Smith…In the present system, the beamstop is modified to allow the direct beam to pass through the center of the beamstop. A pinhole and an attenuator are used to control the size and intensity of the direct beam passing through the beamstop. INTRODUC…
AN UPDATE TO NRLXRF AND NBSGSC, W.T. ELAM AND J.R. SIEBER, PP. 442-448W.T. Elam and J.R. Sieber…However, it has been 20 years since NRLXRF was updated and more than 10 years since NBSGSC was released. We are attempting to revise and update these codes and combine them into a single, modular package to meet our respective needs for fundamen…
AN X-RAY FRACTOGRAPHY STUDY OF A SINTERED COMPOSITES SYSTEM OF AL2O3/SIC (WHISKER) , T. MORI, M. KAWASAKI, T. SASAKI AND Y. HIROSE, PP. 376-381T. Mori, M. Kawasaki, T. Sasaki and Y. Hirose…A specimen bent at three points with different notch radii was used to measure h-acture toughness. Effects of the notch radii on the stress intensity factor Kp were measured during the initiation of the crack. Experimental results agreed with fr…
AN X-RAY STUDY OF SHOT PEENING MATERIAL DURING FATIGUE, S. TAKAHASHI, M. HASHIMOTO AND Y. HIROSE, PP. 117-122S. Takahashi, M. Hashimoto and Y. Hirose…Other mechanical properties of surface were also measured; i.e., microstructure, residual stress, work hardening, etc. KEY WORDS Shot peening, Stainless steel, Work hardening, Residual stress, Fatigue limit INTRODUCTION Improvement in fatigue st…
ANALYSIS OF INTRINSIC STRESS IN DIAMOND FILMS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION, Q. YANG, L. ZHAO AND H. XIAO AND N. ZHAO, PP. 151-156Q. Yang, L. Zhao and H. Xiao and N. Zhao…The intrinsic macrostress in the diamond films was tensile. The tensile stress decreased almost linearly with acetone concentration, and a minimum tensile stress was obtained at a deposition temperature of 9OOOC and 50 V bias voltage. The micros…
APPLICATION OF MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY FOR LOCALIZED AREA ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIALS, J.R. SIEBER, M. LANKOSZ AND M. BORUCHOWSKA, PP. 540-546J.R. Sieber, M. Lankosz and M. Boruchowska…Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow, Poland ABSTRACT A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the National Institute of Standards and Technology micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometer as a tool for testing material homogeneity at the microscale le…
APPLICATION OF NI/C GÖBEL MIRRORS AS PARALLEL BEAM X-RAY OPTICS FOR CU K-ALPHA AND MO K-ALPHA RADIATION, T. HOLZ, R. DIETSCH, H. MAI AND L. BRUGEMANN, PP. 212-217T. Holz, R. Dietsch, H. Mai and L. Brugemann…Outstanding features of the PLD-process are high thickness uniformity, precision of deposition process, formation of smooth interfaces and suppression of columnar growth of thin films. High quality layer stacks with laterally graded thickness di…
APPLICATION OF POLYCAPILLARY OPTICS FOR PARALLEL BEAM POWDER DIFFRACTIONS.T. Misture and M. Haller…Measurements of powder samples were made using Bragg-Brentano, traditional parallel beam, and polycapillary/parallel beam instrument configurations. In the case of the polycapillary optic, several configurations of the receiving side optics were…
ATTAINING 1% ACCURACY IN ABSOLUTE PHASE COMPOSITION LEVELS BY RIETVELD ANALYSIS, B.H. O’CONNOR AND D.Y. LI, PP. 305-312B.H. O’Connor and D.Y. Li…It is proposed from a statistical analysis that the target for scale factor estimated standard deviation (esd) should be in the vicinity of 0.2% relative, with additional targets being assumed for the ZMV factors, for the x-ray attenuation corre…
BARIUM STRONTIUM TITANATE THIN FILM ANALYSIS, T. REMMEL, M. SCHULBERG, S. FUJIMURA, H. HONMA, H. KOBAYASHI, H. KOHNO, S. OWENS, R. DESLATTES AND J. PEDULLA, PP. 510-518T. Remmel, M. Schulberg, S. Fujimura, H. Honma, H. Kobayashi, H. Kohno, S. Owens, R. Deslattes and J. Pedulla…Because of its very large dielectric constant, BST is seen as an enabling material that will allow the continual &inking of integrated circuits and progression along the path of Moore’s Law [l]. The electrical behavior of BST is extremely depend…
BEAM COLLIMATION USING POLYCAPILLARY X-RAY OPTICS FOR LARGE AREA DIFFRACTION APPLICATIONS, S.D. PADIYAR, H. WANG, M.V. GUBAREV, W.M. GIBSON AND C.A. MACDONALD, PP. 254-259S.D. Padiyar, H. Wang, M.V. Gubarev, W.M. Gibson and C.A. MacDonald…Abstract Polycapillary optics, arrays of thin-walled, hollow borosilicate glass channels, can be employed to redirect, collimate and focus x-ray photons. Polycapillary collimating optics collect x-rays over a wide solid angle (as large as lo-15 …
CHARACTERIZATION OF SURFACES AND THIN FILMS USING A HIGH PERFORMANCE GRAZING INCIDENCE X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETER, S. MATSUNO, M. KUBA, Y. MORIYASU, T. MORISHITA AND K. OMOTE, PP. 177-184S. Matsuno, M. Kuba, Y. Moriyasu, T. Morishita and K. Omote…The system uses a high-intensity rotating anode X-ray generator, a parabolic graded multilayer mirror, and an asymmetric-cut Ge(220) channel monochrometer to generate an intense, parallel and monochromatic incident Cu K (;\! X-ray beam for grazi…
COMPLETE DATA SETS ACQUIRED WITH DIFFERENT POLYCAPILLARY OPTIC – SOURCE CONFIGURATIONS, F.A. HOFMANN, W.M. GIBSON, C.A. MACDONALD, D.A. CARTER, J.X. HO AND J.R. RUBLE, PP. 241-247F.A. Hofmann, W.M. Gibson, C.A. MacDonald, D.A. Carter, J.X. Ho and J.R. Ruble…The results summarize a series of measurements comparing duplicate data sets obtained from an individual crystal. Intensity and data quality are discussed for measurements with pinhole collimator, collimating polycapillary optic, and focusing po…
DA METHOD FOR OBTAINING STRESS-DEPTH PROFILES BY ABSORPTION CONSTRAINED PROFILE FITTING OF DIFFRACTION PEAKS, T. ELY, P.K. PREDECKI AND I.C. NOYAN, PP. 1-10T. Ely, P.K. Predecki and I.C. Noyan…By explicitly accounting for absorption of x-rays during the peak fitting process this method establishes a direct association between a chosen layer depth and resulting fit data. While peak positions are still converted to stress values via con…
DDCHARACTERIZATION OF PU-CONTAINING PARTICLES BY X-RAY MICROFLUORESCENCE, M. MATTIUZZI, A. MARKOWICZ AND P. DANESI, PP. 534-539M. Mattiuzzi, A. Markowicz and P. Danesi…Several particles in the diameter range of 200-1000 µm were first characterized by optical microscopy followed by qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis performed by X-ray microfluorescence technique (µXRF). The elemental distributions for s…
DETERMINATION OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN HARDENED GEARS, R. HERBST, M. MANTLER AND L. MARKEGARD, PP. 72-77R. Herbst, M. Mantler and L. Markegård…While the primary goal of the presented work was to achieve reasonably high accuracy by careful sample preparation and exact x-ray alignment, the development of a fast method for quality control is an important second aspect in practical applica…
DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATED SAMPLE PREPARATION STATION FOR MICROSAMPLE X-RAY ANALYSIS (MXA), D. CLARK TURNER, E.C. ANDERSON, B. SHUMWAY, PP. 465-471D. Clark Turner, E.C. Anderson, B. Shumway…In this work we present the development of an automated robotic sample deposition system designed with the goals of improving the uncertainty in residue formation while reducing the drying time to improve laboratory response time. Before impleme…
DIFFRACTING PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF MARTENSITE – RETAINED AUSTENITE MICROSTRUCTURES, J.D. MAKINSON, W.N. WEINS, T.W. SNYDER AND R.J. DE ANGELIS, PP. 326-331J.D. Makinson, W.N. Weins, T.W. Snyder and R.J. De Angelis…In addition, however, analysis of the diffracting particle size of both the retained austenite and the martensite provides additional detailed information about the microstructure. The diffracting particle size of the martensite was measured as …
ED-XRF SPECTRUM EVALUATION AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS USING MULTIVARIATE AND NONLINEAR TECHNIQUES, P. VAN ESPEN AND P. LEMBERGE, PP. 560-569P. Van Espen and P. Lemberge…Using nonlinear least-squares fitting using Gauss or Voigt profiles modified with step and tail functions, entire spectra can be evaluated very accurately in a few seconds. The net peak areas obtained can then be used as input to a quantitative …
EFFECT OF CALIBRATION SPECIMEN PREPARATION TECHNIQUES ON NARROW RANGE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE CALIBRATION ACCURACY, S.H. NETTLES, PP. 424-428S.H. Nettles…There are two approaches for producing borate glass calibration standards: (1) use certified Standard Reference Materials, (SRMs) or (2) make calibration standards from high- purity reagent grade chemicals. There are advantages and disadvantages…
EFFECTS OF SUBSTRATE COATING WITH METAL SPRAYING ON RESIDUAL STRESSES IN SPUTTERED TITANIUM-NITRIDE FILMS, Y.MIYOSHI, H. TANABE, T. TAKAMATSU, T. SAMESHIMA, T. EJIMA AND K. UEDA, PP. 163-168Y.Miyoshi, H. Tanabe, T. Takamatsu, T. Sameshima, T. Ejima and K. Ueda…The residual stresses in TiN films sputtered on the substrates coated with various spray coatings were measured by X-ray stress measurement. It was observed that the residual stresses in TiN films sputtered on substrates coated by metal spraying…
EVALUATION OF RESIDUAL STRESS GRADIENTS BY DIFFRACTION METHODS WITH WAVELETS; A NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH, H. WERN, PP. 11-20H. Wern…Because x-rays always detect an averaged information due to absorption, in the past some approaches have been employed to retrieve the true z-profiles from the measured z-profiles where z is in general the 1 /e information depth of the difhacted…
FUNDAMENTALS OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD2), B.B. HE, U. PRECKWINKEL AND K.L. SMITH, PP. 273-280B.B. He, U. Preckwinkel and K.L. Smith…The two-dimensional diffraction pattern contains far more information than a one-dimensional profile collected with the conventional diffractometer. In order to take the advantages of the 2D detector, new approaches are necessary to configure th…
GLIDE TWIN OF CHALCOPYRITE-TYPE AGGAS2: MORPHOLOGY AND FORMATION MECHANISM, H.K. EBA, N. ISHIZAWA AND Y. NODA, PP. 344-349H.K. Eba, N. Ishizawa and Y. Noda…The twin components have (112) planes in common, and coincide with each other in the direction of the atomic arrangement. The twin system is essentially a glide-twin characterized by successive glides of atomic layers parallel to (112) along the…
GRADED D-SPACING MULTILAYER OPTICS FOR VARIOUS ENERGIES, B. VERMAN, B. KIM, D. WILCOX, D. BROADWAY, Y. PLATONOV, N. GRUPIDO AND L. JIANG, PP. 235-240B. Verman, B. Kim, D. Wilcox, D. Broadway, Y. Platonov, N. Grupido and L. Jiang…These include the dependence of multilayer performance on source intensity distribution, coating material choice, multilayer configuration and optical layout. In addition, the influence of coating and curvature errors are addressed. Performance …
GRAZING INCIDENCE X-RAY DIFFRACTION CHARACTERIZATION OF CORROSION DEPOSITS INDUCED BY CARBON DIOXIDE ON MILD STEEL, S. SEMBIRING, B. O’CONNOR, D. LI, A. VAN RIESSEN, C. BUCKLEY, I. LOW AND R. DE MARCO, PP. 319-325S. Sembiring, B. O’Connor, D. Li, A. van Riessen, C. Buckley, I. Low and R. De Marco…Australia. ABSTRACT The paper reports the results of a feasibility study on the use of grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and synchrotron diffraction (GISRD) for near-surface characterisation of corrosion deposits induced by CO2 action …
GRAZING INCIDENCE X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETER FOR DETERMINING IN-PLANE STRUCTURE OF THIN-FILMS, K. OMOTE AND J. HARADA , PP. 192-200K. Omote and J. Harada…Its goniometer has two in-plane tp/20 x axes and two conventional m¢20 axes for measurements of in-plane and out-of-plane diffraction, respectively. The diffractometer can be used for grazing-incidence asymmetric Bragg diffraction, in-plane diff…
HEAVY ELEMENT DETERMINATION IN HEALTH-RELATED ORGANIC MATRIX MATERIALS BY TOTAL REFLECTION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE, E.D. GREAVES, PP. 570-578E.D. Greaves…Special advantages are derived by the use of monochromatized beams of X- rays: i) The reduction in the spectrum background allows direct irradiation of organic matter specimens. Hence human tissue and body fluids are prepared by simple procedure…
HIGH RESOLUTION X-RAY MEASUREMENTS OF STRAIN-MEDIATED DIFFUSION IN CUINSE2, P. FONS, S. NIKI, A. YAMADA, M. UCHINO AND H. OYANAGI, PP. 201-211P. Fons, S. Niki, A. Yamada, M. Uchino and H. Oyanagi…Due to its large optical absorption coefficient (α ~ 10^5 cm^−1), its use in thin film polycrystalline solar cells is an active research topic. As most of the research effort to date has been applied directly to polycrystalline film formation for …
IDENTIFICATION OF CUCL IN SI BY XRD-XRF ANALYSIS, C.-T. LI AND L. TARHAY, PP. 366-375C.-T. Li and L. Tarhay…The objective of this study is to overcome this difficulty by developing a method in X-ray diffraction (XRD) or X- ray fluorescence m) analysis for the accurate determination of CuCl in Si. A series of 9 binary standard mixtures were prepared fr…
INFLUENCE OF REHEATING TEMPERATURE ON RESIDUAL STRESS IN NITRIDED HOT WORK DIE STEEL (H13), K. YATSUSHIRO, M. HIHARA AND M. KURAMOTO, PP. 98-106K. Yatsushiro, M. Hihara and M. Kuramoto…These changes were measured by X-ray stress measurement method of the stress constant K, residual stress distribution, half-value breadth (ha&height peak intensity) measurement, microphotogmphic observations, hardness testing, and the profiles o…
INTERNAL STANDARDS IN HIGH TEMPERATURE XRD, M. MANTLER AND G. HAMMERSCHMID, PP. 260-266M. Mantler and G. Hammerschmid…Chemical reactions between stan- dard and specimen material can be inhibited by mounting them as separate, adjacent stripes rather then mixing them. The paper describes the temperature distribution within the specimen for mix- tures and separate…
INVESTIGATION OF ELECTRON EXCITED X-RAY SPECTRA IN DEPENDENCE ON THE ANGLE OF ELECTRON INCIDENCE, H. EBEL, R. SVAGERA, J. WERNISCH, M.F. EBEL AND M. SANDER, PP. 472-479H. Ebel, R. Svagera, J. Wernisch, M.F. Ebel and M. Sander…All angles are measured with regard to the surface. For these angular ranges the values of const and x for white x-radiation can be given by const = 1.077.10’ Cphotons.s-‘.sr“.~-‘.keV-‘1 and a~,,~ = 13.8% x= 1.111 and a,= 8.8% and Const for char…
LATTICE PARAMETERS OF GALLIUM NITRIDE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND RESULTING EPITAXIAL MISFITS WITH ALUMINA AND SILICON CARBIDE SUBSTRATES, C.J. RAWN AND J. CHAUDHURI, PP. 338-343C.J. Rawn and J. Chaudhuri…The data were used to calculate the epitaxial misfits using the epitaxial relationships, GaN(OOOl)]]A.1203(OO01) and GaN[10i0]]]A120s[1 1201 and GaN(OOOl#iH-SiC(OOO1) and GaN[lOiO]]]6H-SiC[lOiO], reported in the literature. Using the above relat…
MATHEMATICAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFRACTION POLE FIGURES, H. SCHAEBEN, PP. 129-134H. Schaeben…The range of this transform is characterized in terms of an ultrahyperbolic differential equation which is derived without referring to spherical harmonics. The general solution of the differential equation is given both in terms of its characte…
MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF RESIDUAL STRESS IN EPSILON-PHASE IRON NITRIDE LAYERS AS A FUNCTION OF DEPTH, T.R. WATKINS, R.D. ENGLAND, C. KLEPSER AND N. JARAYAMAN, PP. 31-38T.R. Watkins, R.D. England, C. Klepser and N. Jarayaman…In this work, the amount of nitrogen as a function of depth was determined using an electron microprobe, and a Laplace transform function was used to convert the microprobe data to an exponentially weighted volume average as sampled with x-ray d…
MOLECULAR CRYSTAL STRUCTURES FROM POWDER DIFFRACTION DATA: APPLICATIONS TO PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS AND TO THE CHEMISTRY OF DYES, V.V. CHERNYSHEV, A.V. YATSENKO, A.N. FITCH, E.J. SONNEVELD, V.A. MAKAROV AND H. SCHENK, PP. 299-304V.V. Chernyshev, A.V. Yatsenko, A.N. Fitch, E.J. Sonneveld, V.A. Makarov and H. Schenk…F-38043, Grenoble Cedex, France ’ Universig of Amsterdam, Laboratov of Crystallography, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, Amsterakm IO18 WVj The Netherlands d State Scientific Center %?lOPIK”, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, B. Sadovaya str. I- 4, 103…
NARROW ROCKING CURVE MULTILAYER X-RAY MIRRORS, S.M. OWENS, R.D. DESLATTES AND J. PEDULLA, PP. 223-228S.M. Owens, R.D. Deslattes and J. Pedulla…Multilayer design has typically been along the following formula: choose a pair of stable materials with high electron density contrast; investigate their chemical compatibility for thin film deposition; investigate the interface characteristics…
NEUTRON STRESS MEASUREMENT USING NEUTRON IMAGING PLATE, T. SASAKI, N. MINAKAWA, Y. MORII, N. NIIMURA AND Y. HIROSE, PP. 92-97T. Sasaki, N. Minakawa, Y. Morii, N. Niimura and Y. Hirose…So the method of neutron stress measurement is a useful tool for the nondestructive measurement of the internal stress profile in industrial materials. However, the method has some problems such as low resolution of the location of measuring vol…
PARALLEL BEAM METHODS IN POWDER DIFFRACTION AND TEXTURE IN THE LABORATORY, R.A. CLAPP AND M. HALLER, PP. 135-140R.A. Clapp and M. Haller…The Polycapillary Optics are provided by XOS Inc. and collect X-rays diverging from the point focus of a conventional XRD tube, over a solid angle of 4.1 degrees. A parallel beam is produced, with a beam divergence of 0.22 degrees, at 30% effici…
PHASE ANALYSIS OF CARBON-CERAMIC COMPOSITES SYNTHESIZED BY IN-SITU SINTERING, Q. YANG, H. XIAO AND M. MANTLER, PP. 388-393Q. Yang, H. Xiao and M. Mantler…Phase analysis of the composites was performed by XRD. The results of qualitative phase analysis show that the composites consist of C, Sic, TiB2 and Ti(C,Nr+J, which illustrates that the starting material Si, B4C and TiOz or TiC reacted complet…
POLYCAPILLARY X-RAY OPTICS FOR X-RAY ASTRONOMY, C.H. RUSSELL, M. GUBAREV, J. KOLODZIEJCZAK, M. JOY, C.A. MACDONALD AND W.M. GIBSON, PP. 480-486C.H. Russell, M. Gubarev, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Joy, C.A. MacDonald and W.M. Gibson…Polycapillary x-ray optics can be used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio by focusing photons onto a small energy dispersive detector. Two optics, both designed for x-ray astronomy, have been built and tested as collimating optics with a micr…
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DRIED-RESIDUE CALIBRATION STANDARDS FOR USE IN MICROSAMPLE X-RAY ANALYSIS (MXA), E.C. ANDERSON, B. SHUMWAY AND D.C. TURNER, PP. 456-464E.C. Anderson, B. Shumway and D.C. Turner…Detection limits in the parts-per-billion are being routinely achieved using standard laboratory instruments with only minor modifications, In the technique, a droplet of sample-typically 50 microliters-is evaporated onto a thin film substrate a…
QUANTIFICATION OF FERRITE SPINEL AND HEMATITE IN FLY ASH MAGNETICALLY ENRICHED FRACTIONS, R.S. WINBURN, S.L. LERACH, G.J. MCCARTHY, D.G. GRIER AND J.D. CATHCART, PP. 350-355R.S. Winburn, S.L. Lerach, G.J. McCarthy, D.G. Grier and J.D. Cathcart…Geological Survey, Box 25046 MS 973, Denver, CO 80225 ABSTRACT Iron oxide phases, including ferrimagnetic spinel structure phases, are found in all fly ashes and other coal combustion by-products. Magnetically enriched fractions of several fly a…
QUANTITATIVE POLE FIGURE ANALYSIS OF ORIENTED POLYETHYLENE FILMS, J.H. BUTLER, S.M. WAPP AND F.H. CHAMBON, PP. 141-150J.H. Butler, S.M. Wapp and F.H. Chambon…In order to measure their textures quantitatively, we have optimized a procedure for the acquisition and analysis of x-ray pole figure data. Film orientation studies are often concerned with the alignment of PE molecules relative to the process …
QUANTITATIVE SURFACE ANALYSIS BY X-RAY INDUCED ELECTRON EMISSION, H. EBEL, R. SVAGERA AND M.F. EBEL, PP. 519-533H. Ebel, R. Svagera and M.F. Ebel…Further considerations deal with detection limits of the method. An interesting feature of TEY is the possibility to quantify buried thin layers. The detection limits are less than monolayer thicknesses. Another essential feature of TEY is the m…
REALIZATION OF AN ASYMMETRIC MULTILAYER X-RAY MIRROR, S.M. OWENS, R.D. DESLATTES AND J. PEDULLA, PP. 218-222S.M. Owens, R.D. Deslattes and J. Pedulla…Perfect crystal optics, however, can be cut in such a way that allows one to partially engineer the input and output beam widths and divergence to desired values. Such optics, termed asymmetrically cut crystals, are often used to compress or exp…
REMOTE X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS ON PLANETARY SURFACES, D.F. BLAKE, PP. 487-496D.F. Blake…The instrument was built and flight qualified, but the Lunar XRD program was cancelled shortly before the first human landing in 1969. XRF chemical data have been collected in situ by surface landers on Mars (Viking 1 & 2, Pathfinder) and Venus …
RESEARCH IN QUANTITATIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE MICROANALYSIS OF PATTERNED THIN FILMS, M. LANKOSZ, J.R. SIEBER AND J. PEDULLA, PP. 497-503M. Lankosz, J.R. Sieber and J. Pedulla…For the restoration of a microbeam profile of primary X-rays from a wire scan, a mathematical procedure was developed. In order to verify obtained results, a CCD camera was used for direct measurements of beam profiles. Reasonably good agreement…
RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS – A USEFUL TOOL TO ACCESS THE FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS, B. SCHOLTES, PP. 39-47B. Scholtes…In all cases, macro-and micro-residual stress effects have clearly to be separated. In the case of cyclic deformation, stability or relaxation of residual stresses is correlated with microstructural observations. For the case of corrosion fatigu…
RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF GRAPHITE/POLYMER COMPOSITES USING THE CONCEPT OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS, D. DRAGOI, P. PREDECKI, M. KUMOSA AND M. CASTELLI, PP. 78-91D. Dragoi, P. Predecki, M. Kumosa, M. Castelli…M. Castelli. XRD measurements were made using a Siemens D500 diffractometer with pseudo parallel-beam optics a solid state detector and Cu KCX radiation. Specimens were subjected to bending loads while irradiated, using a 4-point bending device …
SELECTED METHODS OF EVALUATING RESIDUAL STRESS GRADIENTS MEASURED BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION. TRADITIONAL, FULL TENSOR, AND WAVELET, L. SUOMINEN AND D. CARR, PP. 21-30L. Suominen and D. Carr…This volume variation is due to beam tilting during a measurement and the exponential decay of x-rays during penetration. Different methods have been devised to correct this biased data. Perhaps the most used method is described in the publicati…
SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENTS OF SEVERAL POLE FIGURES USING AN IMAGING PLATE, T. GOTO, T. SASAKI AND H. HIROSE, PP. 157-162T. Goto, T. Sasaki and H. Hirose…Computer smoothing of the Debye-Scherrer rings produced excellent pole figures. INTRODUCTION An IP [l] has been used, in recent years, to make X-ray experiments. Since the IP is a two-dimensional X-ray area detector, information about several De…
STRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT DURING THE HEAT-DRAW PROCESS OF NYLON 66 FIBER BY SYNCHROTRON X-RAY DIFFRACTION, S. RAN, S. CRUZ, X. ZONG, D. FANG, B. CHU, B.S. HSIAO, R. ROSS, H. CHANG AND D. LONDONO, PP. 313-318S. Ran, S. Cruz, X. Zong, D. Fang, B. Chu, B.S. Hsiao, R. Ross, H. Chang and D. Londono…A unique image analysis method was introduced to analyze the two-dimensional (2D) WAXD patterns. The quantitative fractions of crystal, mesomorphic and amorphous phases were obtained. In this study, the Brill transition during nylon 66 fiber def…
STUDY OF THE FATIGUE FRACTURE SURFACE REGIONS OF STEELS USING MICROBEAM SYNCHROTRON X-RAY DIFFRACTION, Y. YOSHIOKA, K.AKITA, H. SUZUKI AND T.SASAKI, PP. 382-387Y. Yoshioka, K.Akita, H. Suzuki and T.Sasaki…The existence of subgrains within the cyclic plastic region was shown by the appearance of small spots in the Debye-Scgerrer rings of the imaging plate. This effect did not exist outside of the cyclic plastic area. The size of the cyclic plastic…
SYNCHROTRON STUDIES OF POLYMERS AT HIGH SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL RESOLUTION, A. MAHENDRASINGAM, C. MARTIN, S. BINGHAM, W. FULLER AND D.J. BLUNDELL, PP. 356-365A. Mahendrasingam, C. Martin, S. Bingham, W. Fuller and D.J. Blundell…These developments are illustrated by studies of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The fabrication of films and containers of PET typically involves mechanical deformation at elevated temperatures close to its Tg. Such processing can have majo…
SYSTEMATIC ERRORS IN LINEAR PSD BASED HTXRD SYSTEMS, E.A. PAYZANT AND W.S. HARRISON, III, PP. 267-272E.A. Payzant and W.S. Harrison, III…It is noted that dead time counting losses are extremely important in this system, and these can be reduced through a combination of hardware and software solutions. There is also a significant loss in diffraction peak Cu Kα1:Kα2 resolution at h…
THE ANALYTICAL POSSIBILITIES OF A PORTABLE TXRF-SPECTROMETER, U. WALDSCHLAGER, PP. 418-423U. Waldschlager…In the present device the excitation radiation has been monochromatized (17.5 keV) by a one stage NYC multilayer monochromator module. The absolute detection limits for this TXRF-spectrometer are in the lower pg level. These results will be comp…
THE EVALUATION OF STRUCTURE PARAMETERS OF A MO/SI SUPERLATTICE USING X-RAY SCATTERING DATA AND A GENETIC ALGORITHM , A. ULYANENKOV, K. OMOTE AND J. HARADA, PP. 185-191A. Ulyanenkov, K. Omote and J. Harada…The sample was deposited on a Si wafer by ion beam sputtering. The data are explained quantitatively by using a distorted-wave Born approximation including correlating behaviour of interface roughness both in a lateral and vertical direction. A …
THE INFLUENCE OF SPECIMEN SIZE AND BEAM DIVERGENCE ON QUANTITATIVE XRF BY FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETER METHODS, M. MANTLER AND B. HOCHLEITNER, PP. 547-552M. Mantler and B. Hochleitner…Intensity as well as spectral distribution of the primary beam varies with each irradiated spot, and (slightly) different relative fluorescent intensities must be expected for each line. In order to study this effect and its implication for quan…
THE MODIFICATION OF TXRF-METHOD BY USE OF X-RAY SLITLESS COLLIMATOR, V.K. EGOROV, O.S. KONDRATIEV, A.P. ZUEV AND E.V. EGOROV, PP. 406-417V.K. Egorov, O.S. Kondratiev, A.P. Zuev and E.V. Egorov…The design of the TXRF spectrometer is simpler in the construction and lower in cost as compared with the standard one but is characterized by acceptable analytical and operational parameters. It supplies detection limits of Fe group elements fo…
TIME DEPENDENT CHARACTERIZATION OF OMBROTROPHIC PEAT CORES FROM POLAND AND AUSTRIA FOR STUDYING ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF METALSB. Holynska, B. Ostachowicz, J. Ostachowicz, L. Samek, P. Wachniew, E. Madeyska, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli and G. Halmetschlager…Lubicz 46, 31-512 Krakow, Poland P.Wobrauschek, C.Streli, G. Halmetschlager Atominstitut of the Austrian Universities, Stadionallee 2, A-l 020 Vienna, Austria ABSTRACT Ombrotrophic peat bogs form an independent ecosystem fed entirely by atmosphe…
TUNABLE MULTILAYER-MIRROR OPTICS FOR TABLE-TOP X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY, N. GURKER, R. NELL AND W. BACKFRIEDER, PP. 229-234N. Gurker, R. Nell and W. Backfrieder…The resulting 1D focusing element demagnifies the tube focal spot into an image line with its width and position following from a classical imaging equation. While the tube and the image (´focal´) position are kept fixed, the focal length and ax…
TWO-DIMENSIONAL SMALL ANGLE SCATTERING FROM SUBMONOLAYER ISLANDS, P.F. MICELI, A. SAHINER, C. BOTEZ, W.C. ELLIOTT AND P.W. STEPHENS, PP. 169-176P.F. Miceli, A. Sahiner, C. Botez, W.C. Elliott and P.W. Stephens…It is shown that the surface diffuse line shapes can be interpreted in terms of intra- island and inter-island scattering. The connection between these models and other surface experiments is also discussed. INTRODUCTION There has been considera…
ULTRA-TRACE ANALYSIS BY MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY, M. HASCHKE, P. PFANNEKUCH AND B. SCRUGGS, PP. 435-441M. Haschke, P. Pfannekuch and B. Scruggs…Total reflection spectroscopy has provided the best opportunities due to advances in reduction of background radiation and sample preparation. By using a simple, specialized sample preparation technique (dried residue method), energy-dispersive …
VXRF: A SOFTWARE PACKAGE FOR TEACHING (AND LEARNING) XRF, M. MANTLER, PP. 429-434M. Mantler…The client part of the package is freely available to students and connects via Internet to a server, which includes the actual simulation routines. INTRODUCTION Courses covering analytical methods for materials characterization are part of the …
X-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF RESISTOR/DIELECTRIC MATERIAL FOR LOW TEMPERATURE CO-FIRED CERAMIC PACKAGES, M.A. RODRIGUEZ, P. YANG, P. KOTULA AND D. DIMOS, PP. 332-337M.A. Rodriguez, P. Yang, P. Kotula and D. Dimos…The LTCC underwent devitrification to an anorthite phase in the range of 835-875 ‘C with activation energy of 180 kJ/mol as calculated from kinetic data. The resistor paste underwent devitrification in the 835- 875 ‘C range forming monoclinic an…
X-RAY MEASUREMENT OF TRI-AXIAL RESIDUAL MACRO- AND MICROSTRESS IN FE-CR STEEL/TIN SYSTEM COMPOSITE MATERIALS PREPARED BY POWDER METALLURGY, S. TAKAGO, T. SASAKI AND Y. HIROSE, PP. 123-128S. Takago, T. Sasaki and Y. Hirose…The Dohe-Hauk methodtzl was used to calculate residual stress, and the influence of TiN volume on residual stress is discussed. X-ray stress results were confhmed by thermal stress calculations. I INTRODUCTION Valve seats in diesel engine are ma…
X-RAY STRESS ANALYSIS ON POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL DETECTORS , A. KAMPFE, B. EIGENMANN, E. MACHERAUCH, D. LOHE, B. KAMPFE AND S. GOLDENBOGEN, PP. 54-65A. Kampfe, B. Eigenmann, E. Macherauch, D. Lohe, B. Kampfe and S. Goldenbogen…Since the residual and loading stresses can strongly influence the lifetime of mechanical and electronical components, the improvement of components as well as the assessment of failures require an intensive understanding of the residual and loa…
X-RAY STRESS MEASUREMENT FOR TITANIUM ALUMINIDE INTERMETALLIC COMPOUND, T. KONDOH, T. GOTO, T. SASAKI, Y. HIROSE, PP. 107-116T. Kondoh, T. Goto, T. Sasaki, Y. Hirose…We accurately obtained residual stress from spotted diffraction patterns by X-ray stress measurement using an imaging plate (IP). On the other hand, a conventional X-ray stress measurement method using a scintillation counter was more effective …
X-RAY STUDY OF THE INHOMOGENEITY OF SURFACE RESIDUAL STRESSES AFTER SHOT-PEENING TREATMENT, V. MONIN, J.R. TEODOSIO, T. GUROVA AND J.T. ASSIS, PP. 48-53V. Monin, J.R. Teodosio, T. Gurova and J.T. Assis…ABSTRACT It is well known that shot-peer&g treatment increases the fatigue resistance of metals. It is considered that this effect is caused by compressive residual stresses arising in the treated surface. Usually the mean value of residual stre…
XRF IDENTIFICATION OF ALLOYS USING LOTUS APPROACH 97 (REGISTERED TRADEMARK) DATABASE WITH ASM INTERNATIONAL (REGISTERED TRADEMARK) DATA, A.J. KLIMASARA, PP. 394-405A.J. Klimasara…An electronic version of Woldman’s Engineering Alloys@ (7* Edition) is available from ASM International in multiple files in Excel 4.0 format. This package contains data for more than twenty six thousand alloys. To make these data more usable, t…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

1998 – VOL42

“DIGITIZED DATABASE QUANTIFICATION, DDBQ, ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX MIXTURES USING FULLY DIGITIZED PATTERNSD.K. Smith and G.G. Johnson, Jr.…The digitized database quantification technique, DDBQ, was developed in the 1980s. Appropriate reference patterns are stored in small databases and selected for fitting to an experimental pattern of a mixture. The reference patterns may be exper…
“SOLVING CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF INORGANIC, ORGANIC AND COORDINATION COMPOUNDS USING SYNCHROTRON POWDER DATAJ.A. Kaduk…Knowledge of the crystal structure of a material makes it possible to explain many other properties, and facilitates the use of diffraction techniques to obtain morphological and mesostructural information from powder data. Having the structure …
A DIRECT ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING ILL-CONDITIONED LINEAR ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMSX.J. Xue, K.J. Kozaczek, S.K. Kurtz and D.S. Kurtz…By writing the system as an expanded matrix A’= [ ~ibi E], where E is an n x y1 unitary matrix, one can transform A into a unitary matrix through the row-transformations with complete pivoting and proper zeroing, It is shown that the algorithm c…
A MODIFIED APPROACH TO HOMOGENEITY TESTING AT MICROSCALEM. Mattiuzzi and A. Markowicz…A microanalytical instrumental set-up is used to study homogeneity at mass level below 1 mg and a modified version of T and F statistical tests is applied. The sensitivity of the method to identify contaminated materials is assessed with Monte C…
ACCESSING THE ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF CUBIC MATERIALS WITH DIFFRACTION METHODST. Gnäupel-Herold, P.C. Brand and H.J. Prask…A. INTRODUCTION Diffraction based methods for residual stress analysis probe the strain of a body rather than its stress state. Thus, the conversion into stress requires elastic constants of various kinds which themselves depend on the anisotrop…
ADVANCES IN X-RAY COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY AT THE NSLSB.A. Dowd, A.B. Andrews, K.W. Jones, R.B. Marr, A.M. Peskin, and D.P. Siddons…The facility is being used to study the structure and properties of a wide variety of materials including aerostructure materials, reservoir sandstones, rodent bones, insects, wood products, and soils with resolution on the order of two microns….
ADVANTAGES OF USING 2D DETECTORS FOR RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENTSB.B. He, U. Preckwinkel and K.L. Smith…An area detector can be considered as a plane intersecting the diffraction cones. The authors of this paper have previously developed a new theory in which a direct relation between the stress tensor and the diffraction cone distortion is given….
AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL FOR IN-SITU X-RAY CHARACTERIZATIONM.A. Rodriguez, D. Ingersoll and D.H. Doughty…Quantitative information such as lattice parameters and kinetic behavior is also straightforward. Analysis of the LiMn204 spine1 using this cell design shows that the lattice undergoes two major structural shrinkages at -4.0 V and -4.07 V during…
AN X-RAY FLUORESCENCE STUDY OF LAKE SEDIMENTS FROM ANCIENT TURKEY USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATIONE.S. Friedman, Y. Sato, A. Alatas, C.E. Johnson, T.J. Wilkinson, K.A. Yener, B. Lai, G. Jennings, S.M. Mini and E.E. Alp…Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616; 4. University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan 113 Sediments from relic Lake Golbasi were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation to determine changes in element concentrations over ti…
AN XRD MORPHOLOGY INDEX FOR TALCS: THE EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE AND MORPHOLOGY ON THE SPECIFIC SURFACE AREAH.J. Holland and M.J. Murtagh…An X-ray diffraction (XRD) index was developed which related the intensity of two talc peaks to its as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The talc XRD morphology index (M) ranged from 0.38 to 0.97. The M index was correlated with the s…
ANALYSIS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF AUSTENITIC AND FERRITIC PHASES OF A DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELL. Meirdi, K. Inal and J.L. Lebrun…The structure of solidification leads a coarse grain material with grain size of the order of millimeters. The aim of the study is to identify the mechanical behavior for both phases by X-ray diffraction and to correlate it to the microstructure…
APPLICATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES OF A NEW INNOVATIVE XRF-XRD SPECTROMETER IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROLD. Bonvin, R. Yellepeddi and A. Buman…Its versatility in handling both conducting and non- conducting solids, its accuracy and excellent precision for the majority of the elements and the wide dynamic range (from ppm to 100%) gave WDXRF the place it enjoys in the process and quality…
APPLICATIONS OF MICRO XRF FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL JAPANESE “AINU” GLASS BEADS AND OTHER ARTIFACTSSugihara, Satoh, Hayakawa, Saito, Sasaki…Most beads were made in the 1800s when making homogenous glass was a difficult task. The homogeneity of Ainu glass beads was measured by micro and conventional XRF method of analysis. These analyses showed no significant difference in chemical c…
AUTOMATED MONITORING OF STACK GAS EMISSIONS BY EDXRFO. Haupt, R. Harmel, C. Schäfer and W. Dannecker…Stack gas emissions in this case means the emission of toxic elements in the form of particulate matter. The toxic and ecological harmful effects of emitted heavy metals are well known and were taken into account by the German law (TA-Luft [l] a…
BST THIN FILM EVALUATION USING X-RAY FLUORESCENCE AND REFLECTIVITY METHODSM. Funahashi, M. Kuraoka, S. Fujimura, H. Kobayashi, H. Kohno and R. Wilson…Increasing a DRAM’s memory density requires reducing the feature size of the IC, which results in a decrease in capacitance. To keep the capacitance constant requires increasing the dielectric constant of the insulator material. BST is of intere…
CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL BENZOTRIAZOLES AND RELATED POLYMERSS.J. Wasson, M.C. Kerzic, J.W. Hall, M.A. Cates and J.R. Wasson…Typical uses are to deactivate surfaces of computer hard drives and other internal metal computer parts, and for treatment of apparel hardware such as zippers and buttons to withstand harsh fabric washing and dyeing processes. Particles from the…
CHARACTERIZATION OF STRAIN IN THIN-FILM STRUCTURES WITH MICRODIFFRACTIONJ.L. Jordan-Sweet, I.C. Noyan, E. Liniger, S.K. Kaldor and P.-C. Wang…It consists of a tapered capillary for microfocusing and a limited four-circle diffractometer with high- precision sample positioning. It was designed for the characterization of strain, mosaic broadening, and orientation in samples that are int…
CHECKING AND ESTIMATING RIR VALUESQ. Johnson and R.S. Zhou…Compared to previous CDs, this new one will provide nearly ten times as many RIR values. In the past, quantitative calculations using RIRs were often frustrated by one or more missing values among the several phases in a mixture subjected to x-r…
COMPARISON BETWEEN ORIENTATION-DEPENDENT STORED ENERGY OF COLD ROLLED AND STRESS RELIEVED INTERSTITIAL FREE STEELN. Rajmohan, Y. Hayakawa, J.A. Szpunar and J.H. Root…KOJ IJO ABSTRACT Quantitative information on the orientation-dependent stored energy in deformed and stress relieved states would greatly improve the understanding of the nature of release of stored energy during recrystallization. Neutron diffr…
CONFOCAL GRADED D-SPACING MULTILAYER BEAM CONDITIONING OPTICSB. Verman, L. Jiang, B. Kim, R. Smith and N. Grupido…Utilizing a “side-by- side” Kirkpatrick-Baez scheme, both mirrors of a Confocal Max-Flux@ optics can be positioned at the most optimized location. For intensity sensitive applications with limited sample size, the working surfaces are elliptical…
CONSIDERATIONS ON THE DETECTION LIMIT OF TEY (TOTAL ELECTRON YIELD)M. Ebel, H. Ebel and R. Svagera…Thus, in standard geometry we obtained for Cr (K-edge jump) detectable layer thicknesses of 0.2nm. An essential improvement is obtained by a variation of the angle of incident x-rays towards grazing incidence, an increase of the solid angle of e…
CORRELATION OF NEAR SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF POLYPROPYLENE AND PAINT ADHESION STUDIED BY GRAZING INCIDENCE X-RAY DIFFRACTIONA.R. Drews, D.F. Mielewski and H.K. Plummer, Jr.…Molds used in production are typically fabricated from steel because of its durability. For rapid prototyping or low volume production runs, molds made from a lighter, more easily machined material would offer significant advantages. To investig…
DB2DI: EXTRACTING PEAK-HEIGHT D-I DATA FOR THE POWDER DIFFRACTION FILE FROM RIETVELD ANALYSESD.K.Smith and R.A. Young…ABSTRACT DB2dI is a DOS-executable program for extraction peak-height d&I data from Rietveld analysis results for submission to the ICDD Powder Diffraction File, PDF-2. A simple listing of the calculated d and intensity values from the output of…
DEVELOPMENT OF AN XRF METROLOGY METHOD FOR COMPOSITION AND THICKNESS OF BARIUM STRONTIUM TITANATE THIN FILMST. Remmel and D. Werho…Since the capacitance of BST films is dependent upon both stoichiometry and thickness, implementation into manufacturing will require precise metrology methods to monitor both of these properties. This is a challenge, since the BST film thicknes…
DISORDERING POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS: APPLICATIONS TO RIETVELD REFINEMENTSA. Cabeza, E.R. Losilla, H.S. Martínez-Tapia, S. Bruque and M.A.G. Aranda…This underlined the implications of the sample preparation method on Rietveld refinement results. The studied methods are: Side Loading Holder (SLH), Disordering with Spherical Amorphous Particles (DSAP) and Tubular Aerosol Suspension Chamber (T…
EFFECTS OF THERMAL CYCLES ON RESIDUAL STRESS FOR NITRIDED AND SULPHONITRIDED HOT WORK DIE STEELK. Yatsushiro, M. Hihara, K. Okada, S. Yabuuchi and M. Kuramoto…The tests used three specimens: hot work die steel (H13) treated by plasma-nitriding; plasma-sulphonitriding; and gas-sulphonitriding. The heat used during the thermal fatigue test on the treated surface caused decomposition and inverse nitrogen…
ESTIMATING RESIDUAL STRESS TENSOR IN ALUMINUM AND COPPER THIN FILMS AND INTERCONNECTSX.J. Xue, K.J.Kozaczek, D.S. Kurtz and S.K. Kurtz…Due to the geometrical structure and material properties, significant residual stresses appear in interconnects during integrated circuit fabrication, storage and service. The evaluation of these triaxial stresses is essential to understand fail…
EVALUATION OF ENERGY-DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE FOR MOBILE ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS METALS IN TRANSURANIC WASTES.J. Goldstein…Here an EDXRF method is described for analysis of 13 hazardous (RCRA) metals in Portland cement, a typical matrix for transuranic (TRU) waste from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Samples are analyzed as homogeneous powders prepared by sim…
EXEFSJ. Kawai, K. Hayashi and K. Maeda…The EXEFS method is a novel method of measuring X-ray absorption spectra with the use of an unmodified wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer or an EPMA (electron probe X-ray microanalyzer). EXAFS or XANES-like spectra were obtain…
FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETER METHODS IN XRF SPECTROSCOPYH.A. van Sprang…Only one of them is also capable of coping with stacks of layers of unknown thickness. Resultsfor a number of sputtered layers are compared with ICP-AES data and the agreement is found excellent, INTRODUCTION In the recent past innovations in X-…
FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF KOSSEL TECHNIQUE BY MEANS OF ELECTRON AND SYNCHROTRON BEAM EXCITATIONJ. Bauch, J. Brechbühl and H.-J. Ullrich…In 1934, Walther Kossel and his coworkers discovered the so-called X-ray interferences of lattice sources by bombarding a Cu single crystal with a high-energy electron beam. This interference effect can be recorded on a photographic film as diff…
HIGH RESOLUTION X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND PHOTOLUMINESCENCE CORRELATION AS AN ACCURATE AND NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION TECHNIQUE FOR PHEMT STRUCTURESA. Torabi, S.K. Brierley, P.S. Lyman, W.E. Quinn and W.E. Hoke…High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) is an ideal method for evaluating quantum wells and heterostructures. However, HRXRD assessment of thin epilayers (-1OOA) requires signal integration times of several hours. On the other hand, room tempe…
IMPROVED GRADED MULTILAYER MIRRORS FOR XRD APPLICATIONSC. Michaelsen, P. Ricardo, D. Anders, M. Schuster, J. Schilling and H. Göbel…The use of high-precision prefigured optical substrates led to a new generation of curved graded multilayer mirrors in which the geometrical aberrations connected with the previous substrate bending technique are eliminated. The use of prefigure…
IN-SITU ENVIRONMENTAL XRFW.T. Elam, J.W. Adams, K.R. Hudson, B.J. McDonald, J.V. Gilfrich and J. Galambos…Navy Reserve,Ofice of Naval Research Science and Technology Unit 406, Arlington, VA 22217 ABSTRACT Reductions in the size of detectors and X-ray tubes have made it possible to bring an X-ray fluorescence (XRP) spectrometer into direct contact wi…
INFLUENCE OF REFINEMENT STRATEGIES ON RIETVELD PHASE COMPOSITION DETERMINATIONSB. O’Connor and D. Li…The principal issues considered in this paper are (i) the influence of preferred orientation (PO) on the refinement PC results and (ii) the need to refine individual-atom thermal parameters with particular reference to parameter correlations. Th…
LOCAL ATOMIC IMAGE OF 0.02% ZN IN GAAS WAFER USING X-RAY HOLOGRAPHYK. Hayashi, T. Yamamoto, J. Kawai, M. Suzuki, S. Goto, S. Hayakawa, K. Sakurai and Y. Gohshi…However, only the holograms of single crystals, whose atomic configurations are already known by single crystal X-ray studies, have been measured because of the low intensity of the X-ray beam. We used XFH tequniques to image the atomic structur…
LOGICAL STEPS IN THE AUTOMATED LACHANCE-TRAILL XRF MATRIX CORRECTION METHOD UTILIZING AN ELECTRONIC SPREADSHEETA.J. Klimasara…It is true that such software can be purchased from third parties and the spectrometer can be upgraded. However, all the matrix corrections can be done on the popular electronic spreadsheet and that should be the first and perhaps the last choic…
LOW TEMPERATURE X-RAY INVESTIGATIONS OF RB2LI4(SEO4)3 2H2OW. Bronowska and A. Pietraszko…I78(1) fi, c = 26.739(5) fi, p = 93. I1(3) deg; V = 726.6(2) A3 ) . The powder diffraction data have been collected at 30 K, 80 K, 150 K, 250 K and 300 K. The temperature dependencies of the lattice parameters of these crystals, obtained from th…
MEASUREMENTS OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN MICRON REGIONS BY USING SYNCHROTRON EXCITED KOSSEL DIFFRACTIONJ. Brechbühl, J. Bauch and H.-J. Ullrich…Local deviations from the measured mean value of the stress component, especially within a single grain, cannot be identified (excepting extremely coarse- grained materials). It is well-known that the really acting local residual stresses are as…
MICROSTRUCTURE OF CLAY-POLYMER COMPOSITEST.N. Blanton, D. Majumdar and S.M. Melpolder…To establish the effect of polymer intercalation on the basal plane spacing of Laponite RDS, two clay-polymer composite case studies are described: Laponite RDS and a polyester ionomer AQ55D, and Laponite RDS and a biopolymer gelatin. With polym…
MODELING OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION STRESS ANALYSIS IN POLYCRYSTALLINE INTERCONNECTS WITH SHARP FIBER TEXTURESX.J. Xue, K.J. Kozaczek, S.K. Kurtz and D.S. Kurtz…The interconnects had a sharp [ 11 l] fiber textures or a combination of [ 11 l] and [ 1001 fiber texture components. The sin2 w vs. E+,, plots based on finite element simulations of thermal expansion mismatch stresses were constructed for both …
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MICROSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS VIA RIETVELD REFINEMENTK. Hayashi, T. Yamamoto, J. Kawai, M. Suzuki, S. Goto, S. Hayakawa, K. Sakurai and Y. Gohshi…More and more samples show microstructure effects on line profile shape, width and position. Reasons are obviously the powder diffractometer resolution improvements at leading synchrotron sources, and the increasing number of users. When the min…
NON-AMBIENT Μ-DIFFRACTIONT. Wroblewski and E. Woldt…This may lead to inhomogeneous composition, structure, texture and strain. A novel method applying a micro-channel plate as collimator in front of a position sen- sitive detector (CCD-camera) allows the imaging of large areas (Z lcm2) of such po…
ON THE ENERGY DEPENDENCE OF THE DETECTOR EFFICIENCY OF A SI-PIN DIODEH. Ebel, M. Mantler, S. Saxinger, R. Svagera, B. Wernsperger, P. Wobrauschek and A.C. Huber…The characteristic radiations in the photon energy range from 4.09keV to 19.28keV were detected by a Si-PIN diode with a silicon thickness of 300pm. The measured signals were corrected for the influence of the finite size of the plane specimens …
OPTIMIZING THE ELEMENTAL SENSITIVITY AND FOCAL SPOT SIZE OF A MONOLITHIC POLYCAPILLARY OPTIC USING MICRO-X-RAY FLUORESCENCEC. Worley, G.J. Havrilla, N. Gao and Q.-F. Xiao…The capillary provided an intensity gain of 125 at 4 keV vs. using a pinhole beam collimator; however, this gain advantage declined with increasing analyte line energy as a result of the capillary being designed shorter than its optimal length t…
POWDER DIFFRACTION OF ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS: THE ACTIVE USE OF MULTIPLE OBSERVATIONSN. Masciocchi and A. Sironi…The vast majority of the species studied are ionic, inorganic compounds, although more recently the methodology has been successfully used to study molecular species (such as organics and metal complexes) and polymeric coordination compounds [3]…
PROPOSAL OF METHOD TO MAKE POLE FIGURE USING IMAGING PLATET. Goto, T. Sasaki, Y. Hirose and S. Nagasima…In this study, the method to measure the pole figure with imaging plate (IP) [l-3] was proposed. Because two dimensional X-ray detector IP can measure the whole Debye-Scherrer ring, it can measure more wide-ranging pole density distribution than…
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN NANOCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS VIA RIETVELD REFINEMENTX. Bokhimi, A. Morales, O. Novaro, T. López, R. Gómez and A. García-Ruiz…P. 55-534, 0949 MBxico D. F., Mexico 3. UPIICSA, COOFA, The National Polytechnic Institute, TB No. 950, Esq. Resina, 08400 Mexico D. F., Mexico ABSTRACT Crystalline structures of nanophases can be refined with the Rietveld method by using the co…
QUANTITATIVE DESCRIPTION OF FIBER TEXTURES IN CUBIC METALSR. De Angelis, T. Snyder, J. House and W. Hosford…Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 INTRODUCTION The preferred orientation of grains in a polycrystalline material is referred to as crystallographic texture. There are two broad categories of textures commonly known as sheet and fiber textures. To descri…
QUANTITATIVE X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETRY AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MAGNESIUM TITANATE MIXTURES USING THE RIETVELD REFINEMENTG. Kimmel and J. Zabicky…Geikielite, qandilite and karrooite are formed from coprecipitated precursor powder at about 600°C, depending on the relative stoichiometry of magnesia and titania in the precursor. However, from about 700°C up to about 12OOOC qandilite and karr…
QUANTITATIVE XRD ANALYSIS OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS BY THE RIETVELD METHOD. TESTING WITH STANDARD MIXTURESR.S. Winburn, S.L. Lerach, B.R. Jarabek, M.A. Wisdom, D.G. Grier and G.J. McCarthy…CCBs typically include large numbers of crystalline phases and substantial amorphous content. Many CCB phases have varying levels of crystalline order and solid solution. When prepared as XRD specimens, a number exhibit strong preferred orientat…
ROUTINE QUANTITATIVE PHASE ANALYSIS OF NIOBIUM-BEARING LATERITIC ORESD. Kampata, J. Naud and P. Sonnet…Congo), Mabounie (Gabon), and Sokli (Finland). The ore samples were characterized by a highly variable mineral content, the presence of mineral phases with a wide range of compositions and a high amorphous content. An analytical procedure was es…
SEPARATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF THE AMORPHOUS PHASE USING THE RIETVELD FULL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF SOME INDUSTRIAL SEMI-CRYSTALLINE MATERIALSP. Riello, P. Canton, A. Benedetti and G. Fagherazzi…Simple equations connecting the integrated intensity with the global Rietveld refined scale were found for crystalline materials: they can be used to perform a quantitative analysis in semi- crystalline materials but only in the presence of a co…
SPECIMEN PREPARATION LIMITATIONS IN TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS QUANTIFICATION USING MICRO-X-RAY FLUORESCENCEL.P. Colletti and G.J. Havrilla…The combination of preconcentration with localized spatially resolved excitation offers increased sensitivity for both aqueous solutions and solid matrices. An additional attractive feature of MXRF is the small specimen size required. Present st…
STRUCTURAL AND RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION ON POLYMERIC MATERIALS AND COMPOSITESV. Hauk…Young’s modulus of polymeric materials are known. But the history of systematic stress analysis by X-ray diffraction starts with papers of Barrett and Predecki [3]. Fig. 1 tells the progress of the development in the studies on polymeric materia…
TEMPERATURE RESOLVED EVALUATION OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN AN A-AL2O3 SCALE USING PARALLEL BEAM X-RAY DIFFRACTIONM. Groß, V. Kolarik, L. Singheiser, W. Engel and N. Eisenreich…At oxidation temperature small compressive stresses of less than -100 MPa were found, whereas larger compressive stresses built up during cooling, which reached about -4000 MPa at room temperature. Parallel beam geometry achieved on the laborato…
TEXTURE DETERMINATION IN HIGHLY STRESSED PVD THIN FILMSP. Scardi, M. Leoni and Y.H. Dong…The high residual stress deeply influenced texture determination by conventional methods based on pole figures. Area maps (collections of 8-28 patterns at regular steps of v-tilting) were used to properly assess the mixed [21 l]/[l 1 l] growth m…
THE USE OF WAVELET TRANSFORMS FOR X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSISS. Bates…This makes them suitable for the analysis of discreet events and localized phenomena. The development of a Wavelet Transform method will be discussed and directly applied to the identification of unknown polycrystalline phases. Introduction Wave…
THIN FILM CHARACTERIZATION BY SYNCHROTRON X-RAY MICRO-DIFFRACTION USING GRAZING EXIT CONDITIONST. Noma, K. Takada and A. Iida…To optimize the spatial resolution and the surface sensitivity, an X-ray microbeam impinges on the sample surface at a large angle while the diffracted X-rays are detected with a small (grazing) exit angle. The monochromatic X-ray microbeam was …
THIN FILM DENSITY DETERMINATION BY MULTIPLE RADIATION ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY REFLECTIVITYD. Windover, E. Barnat, J.Y. Kim, M. Nielsen, T.-M. Lu, A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, C. Jin and S.L. Lee…A conventional laboratory, Bragg-Brentano-geometry diffractometer was employed to show the generalized feasibility of this technique. X-ray tubes with Cr, Cu and MO targets were used to provide a large overlap of energies for density fitting. X-…
THIN FILM SORBENTS FOR TXRF ANALYSISA.P. Morovov, L.D. Danilin, V.V. Zhmailo, Yu. V. Ignat’ev, N.V. Pilipenko, V.V. Nazarov, M.G. Vasin, V.V. Chulkov and V.N. Funin…In this method a specimen in the form of an optically thin layer is applied to a smooth substrate and illuminated by an x-ray beam at a grazing angle less than critical for the substrate material. Under these conditions the primary x-ray beam is…
USE OF ODF DATA TO QUANTITATIVELY DESCRIBE FIBER TEXTURESW.F. Hosford, J. O’Brien, J. House and R. De Angelis…By employing Euler angles, the ODF can describe the general texture of a polycrystaline material. For fiber textures of cubic phases, it is often of interest to describe a fiber texture in terms of the relative density of <loo>, cl 1 l>, and <l …
WIDE ANGLE GEOMETRY EDXRF SPECTROMETERS WITH SECONDARY TARGET AND DIRECT EXCITATION MODESB. Yokhin…The secondary target mode is known for many years as a method for obtaining quasi- monochromatic excitation, which helps to decrease dramatically the background and therefore to lower the detection limits. Another advantage is a possibility to c…
X-RAY ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANICAL STATE OF A NICKEL BASED MULTICRYSTAL ON THE MESOSCOPIC SCALE: ROLE OF THE GRAIN ORIENTATION AND ITS BOUNDARYF. Eberl, J.L. Lebrun and G. Cailletaud…Evry Cedex, France ABSTRACT The use of the well known sin2Y-method allows to determine the macroscopic internal stresses in a isotropic, small grained and untextured material. Second order stresses at the scale of the grain can be determined by …
X-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOUNDS IN THE SRO-PBO SYSTEMW. Wong-Ng, J.P. Cline, L.P. Cook and W. Greenwood…Two binary oxides were confirmed in this system: SrPbO,, and Sr,PbO,, The SrPbO, phase melts around 865 “C and was found to undergo phase tranformations from orthorhomic to tetragonal to cubic structure at 425 – 450 “C and 815 “C respectively. A…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION SIGNATURES OF DEFECTS IN NANOCRYSTALLINE MATERIALSJ.D. Makinson, J.S. Lee, S.H. Magner, R.J. De Angelis, W.N. Weins and A.S. Hieronymus…Stacking and twin faults were introduced into spherical and cubic shaped face-centered cubic nanocrystals. The calculated diffraction patterns from the faulted nanocrystals display peak shifts and peak broadening consistent with current theories…
X-RAY FRACTOGRAPHIC STUDY OF SINTERED FE-CR STEEL/TIN SYSTEM COMPOSITE MATERIALSS. Takago, T. Sasaki, M. Miyano and Y. Hirose…Valve seats in automobile diesel engines are made of this steel. When external stress is applied to a composite material, microscopic stresses”2 occur due to the misfit of physical and mechanical properties between the constituents in the materi…
X-RAY OPTICSE. Spiller…The advances in x-ray optics during the last 25 years were facilitated by the availability of bright synchrotron radiation sources, the invention of multilayer x-ray mirrors with high reflectance, and the development of high resolution zone plat…
X-RAY TRI-AXIAL STRESS MEASUREMENT OF A DIAMOND FILMH. Hirose and T. Sasaki…Film coatings improve many properties such as wear and corrosion resistance. Diamond, the new coating film, excels in wear resistance; however, it is important to establish the optimum film deposition method and condition, and to evaluate the ma…
XRF MAPPING: NEW TOOLS FOR DISTRIBUTION ANALYSISB. Scruggs, M. Haschke, L. Herczeg and J. Nicolosi…Up to now, to the best of our knowledge, XRF mapping has been done by defining an elemental line or a region of interest (ROI) prior to data collection. This type of elemental distribution analysis is typically referred to as ROI mapping. Hence,…


2019 – VOL632018 – VOL622017 – VOL612016 – VOL602015 – VOL592014 – VOL582013 – VOL572012 – VOL562011 – VOL552010 – VOL542009 – VOL532008 – VOL522007 – VOL512006 – VOL502005 – VOL492004 – VOL482003 – VOL472002 – VOL462005 – VOL452000 – VOL441999 – VOL431998 – VOL421997 – VOL411996 – VOL40

1997 – VOL41

A COMPARISON OF DETECTORS USED FOR MICRODIFFRACTION APPLICATIONSMichael 0. Eatough, Mark A. Rodrigue, Thomas N. Blanton, Ralph G. Tissot…The evolution of microdiffraction, to arrive at the state of the art, has followed a path that includes various diffractometer methods as well as film methods. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the detectors employed by microdiffraction …
A COMPARISON OF SOFTWARE PACKAGES FOR X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF SILICATES ON FUSION DISKSHCC Cloete…The correction coefficients were also compared with each other. The evaluated software packages were grouped according to the use of flux components. For the calibration of a wide range of geological samples only minor differences between the tw…
A PRACTICAL HOT STAGE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE MICRO-ANALYSISRalph G. Tissot Jr. and Mark Rodriguez…In order to study these devices at elevated temperatures a microscope hot stage was modified for high temperature microdiffraction analysis. With minor modifications, surface temperatures of 1 OOO°C and greater could be reached rapidly and with …
ADVANCES IN XRMF AND XRD USING MONOLITHIC CAPILLARY X-RAY LENSDing Xunliang, , He Jejun, Wei Fuzhong, Xie Jindong, Wang Dachun, Li Yude, Chen Baozhen, Chen Jun and Yan Yiming,…Introduction The capillary X-ray optics and capillary based X-ray focusing systems (Kumakhov Lens) have developed rapidly in the recent years[ l-51. As a effective means for adjusting powerful white X-ray beams, the x-ray lens has found potentia…
AN EVALUATION OF THE ANALYSIS OF MONAZITE AND REE COMPOUNDS BY WDXRFS: A SPECTROSCOPIST’S NIGHTMARE (OR CHALLENGE?)James P. Willis, Edward B. McNew…The evaluation considers the use of K or L series REE, Nb and Y lines, L or M series lines for Th, U and Pb, and K series lines for common major elements. It is shown that the selection of the K or L line series for the REEs will determine wheth…
ANALYSIS OF SUB-MM STRUCTURES IN LARGE BULKY SAMPLES USING MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENT SPECTROMETRYJoseph A . Nicolosi,Michae l Haschke Joseph A . Nicolosi, Michael Haschke…While samples as large as 25 centimeters in diameter and 9 centimeters thick can be accommodated in the chamber, the capillary x-ray optics enables elemental characterization of fine structures to 5 0µm. An automated stage and video imaging allo…
APPLICATION OF RIETVELD REFINEMENT COMBINED WITH FORCE FIELD ENERGY MINIMIZATION TO STRUCTURE INVESTIGATION OF CYCLO-TRIS(2.6-PYRIDYL FORMAMIDINE)P. Friedel, D. Jehnichen, J. Bergmann, T. Taut and A. Haase…Taut SEIFERT – FPM GmbH, Am St. Niclas Schacht 13,09599 Freiberg, Germany A. Haase Rich. Seifert & Co., BogenstraBe 12, 22926 Ahrensburg, Germany Abstract The structure refinement of X-ray powder data using the Rietveld method often results in f…
APPLICATIONS OF THE MONTE CARLO – LIBRARY LEAST-SQUARES METHOD TO THE IN VIVO XRF MEASUREMENT OF LEAD IN BONEQ. Ao, S.H. Lee and R.P. Gardner…The unique features of this approach are that it utilizes the complete spectral information (including characteristic X rays and scatter response) rather than just the peak information, automatically handles the matrix effects and any overlappin…
ASYMMETRIC LATTICE DISTORTION IN PSEUDOMORPHIC MULTILAYERS GROWN ON MISORIENTED SUBSTRATESA. Sanz-Hervas, C. Villar, M. Garrido, J.F. Valtuena, M. Aguilar, J.P.R. David, J.S. Robert,M.A.G. Halliwelld, E.J. Abril, M. Lopez, and I. Izpurab…E-mail: hervas@etsit.upm.es a) Dpto. Teoria de la Sefial y Comunicaciones e Ingenieria Telembtica, E.T.S.I. T., Universidad de Valladolid, Real de Burgos, 47011 Valladolid, Spain. b) Dpto. Ingenieria Electrdnica, E. T.S.I. T, U.P.M., Ciudad Univ…
BENDING MULTILAYERS – A SIMPLE METHOD TO INCREASE THE SENSITIVITY OF TXRFR. Schwaiger, P. Wobrauschek and C. Streli…An efficient way of increasing the photon flux on the sample is the insertion of x-ray optical elements in the primary beam path. In this experiment a mechanically bent W/C multilayer monochromator on a Si- substrate of 0.5 mm thickness was used…
CALIBRATION STANDARDS FOR XRFA OF EMITTED AEROSOL PARTICLES COLLECTED ON A NEWLY DEVELOPED FILTER BAND WITH AN AUTOMATED SAMPLEROlaf Haupt, Rtidiger Harmel and Walter Dannecker…The ecological harm and toxic effects to man’s health are well known and reflected in the German law (TA-Luft and 17.BImSchV) with low emission limits for elements like V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Sb, Sn, Cd, Tl and Pb [l]. For the monitoring of …
CHARACTERIZATION OF BARIUM STRONTIUM TITANATE FILMS USING XRDThomas Remmel, Richard Gregory and Beth Baumert…Film structure as a function of composition, processing parameters and underlying substrate was determined. Differences in the lattice parameter between bulk and sputtered film form were observed, with the lattice parameter being significantly l…
CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROGRAVITY AND GROUND-BASED GROWN CRYSTALS USING SYNCHROTRON WHITE BEAM X-RAY TOPOGRAPHY AND HIGH RESOLUTION TRIPLE AXIS X-RAY DIFFRACTIONH. Chung, Y. Guo, J. Su M. Dudley H.M. Volz, C. Salles and R.J. Matyi…Materials Sci. & Eng., University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 Abstract The combination of Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXT) and High Resolution Triple Crystal X-ray Diffractometry (HRTXD) has been used to non-destructiv…
CHARACTERIZATION OF MO-TA FILMSHans J. Holland, Thomas R. Watkins and Gordon F. Foster…The films had been sputtered onto glass substrates in an argon atmosphere at two pressures and were between 0.4 and 0.5 pm thick. The composition of the films was determined to be constant with depth by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The Mo:Ta…
CHARACTERIZATION OF STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION DIFFRACTION DATABrian O’Connor, Arie van Riessen and Graeme Burton, David Cookson, Richard Garrett…Measurements were performed under in vacua conditions with the high-resolution BIGDIFF Debye- Scherrer instrument (radius = 573 mm) at the Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan using a wavelength of 1.5378 A and a capillary-mounted specimen (diameter =…
CHARACTERIZATION OF X-RAY OPTIC PERFORMANCEJerome Gormley, Terrence Jach, Eric Steel, and Qi-Fan Xiao…The lens is unique in that it has been optimized for use over a broad energy range from 8 keV (Cu &) to 17.5 keV (MO I&). A n x-ray optical bench, which provides both high resolution imaging and energy resolving capabilities, was used to test th…
COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF FRACTAL PARAMETERS OF SI(100) SURFACES MEASURED BY X-RAY SCATTERING AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPYR. Stommer, A.R. Martin, Th. Geue, H. Gobel, W. Hub and U. Pietsch…With atomic force microscopy, the rms roughness o in dependence on the lateral scan length XO is measured. Additionally, two lateral order parameters are determined, the lateral correlation length L and Hurst parameter h. With x-ray scattering, …
DEMYSTIFICATION OF ALGORITHMS AND INFLUENCE COEFFICIENTS IN QUANTITATIVE XRF ANALYSISG.R. Lachance…It should also not be surprising that analysts have approached the task by initially addressing the simpler context {monochromatic excitation, absorption effect in binary systems) and gradually addressing the more common and comprehensive contex…
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR AN EDXRF SYSTEM FOR IN VIVO ELEMENTAL ANALYSISL. Wielopolski…These considerations are more of a guidance than specific solutions. For example, some factors and constraints that need to be considered include patient dosimetry, geometrical configuration of the system, selection of the x-ray-source type and …
DESIGNS FOR NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORYDudley A. Raine III, Camden R. Hubbard,Paul M. Whaley, and Michael C. Wright…The facility will be located at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), which has one of the highest steady state neutron fluxes of any reactor in the world. Neutrons are quite penetrating in most engineering materials and can be useful to detect …
DETERMINATION OF GERMANIUM CONTENT IN COAL ASH BY WAVELENGTH-DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY AND INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA – MASS SPECTROMETRYYanhong Zhang, Jonathan L. Talbott, Luann Wiedenmann, Joe DeBarr and Ilham Demir…Using the Compton peak for matrix correction, fused glass discs (1 part ash + 9 parts Li,B,O&iBO,), and synthetic coal ash standards, we have established a calibration line with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. This method was found to be app…
DEVELOPMENT OF THE DRIED SPOT SPECIMEN PREPARATION METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATION TO MXRF ANALYSISLisa P. Colletti and George J. Havrilla…Small specimen size coupled with spatially resolved excitation offers increased sensitivity for aqueous solutions. The primary limitation in applying this method to routine analyses is that much of the method development and fundamental aspects …
DIRECT METHODS OF STRUCTURE ANALYSIS IN POLYMER CRYSTALLOGRAPHYDouglas L. Dorset and Mary P. McCourt…Single crystal intensities from electron diffraction experiments are particularly useful, especially if the complete reciprocal lattice can be sampled. Furthermore, the analysis of powder or fiber x-ray data also is not precluded, especially if …
DOUBLE MULTILAYER MONOCHROMATOR WITH FIXED EXIT GEOMETRYH.Gatterbauer, P.Wobrauschek, F.Hegediis, P.Biini, C.Streli…Therefore a wide band pass monochromator is desired because it increases the flux of photons impinging on the sample and an energywidth of up to 200 eV does not affect the choice of exciting or suppressing a particular element. The importance of…
DYNAMICAL EFFECTS IN HIGH RESOLUTION TOPOGRAPHIC IMAGING OF ELECTRONIC DEVICESW.T. Beard, K.G. Lipetzky and R.W. Armstrong…This apparatus provides beam divergences comparable to that obtained in a synchrotron beam, while still being a compact affordable laboratory instrument. Adaptation of our system for topography of the full width of 3-inch GaAs wafers, employing …
ED(P)XRF: SCREENING ANALYSIS AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS WITH POLARIZED X-RAYSR. Schramm, J. Heckel and K. Molt…This paper presents an instrumental design to handle both: FAST SCREENING ANALYSIS AND HIGH PRECISION ANALYSIS. The analyses of solids and liquids with real times between 150 and 600 s and a relative error < 10 % for the elements Na up to U will…
EDXRF CHARACTERIZATION OF BST FILMSJames R. Bogert, Hyun Ja Kwon, William Jo, Hyun Ha Kim, Young Woo Jeong, and Jeong Soo Lee, Hak Ro Yoon and In Seung Ban…The development and eventual production of these devices requires characterization and control of the BST thin film composition and thickness. X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry is a widely accepted technique for such characterization of thin-film …
ERROR ANALYSIS OF THE IN VIVO XRF MEASUREMENT OF LEAD IN BONE BY MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONQ. Ao, S.H. Lee and R.P. Gardner…The specific pux:se Monte Carlo code CEARXRF has been used for error analysis for the benchmark Cd based KXRF and polarized X-ray beam based LXRF lead measurement systems. Monte Carlo simulation indicates that the thickness of soft tissue overly…
ESCAPE PROBABILITY OF ELECTRONS IN TOTAL ELECTRON YIELD EXPERIMENTSHorst Ebel, Robert Svagera, Wolfgang S.M. Werner and Maria F. Ebel…In the course of their de-excitation the ionized atoms emit with a probability O<p<l Auger electrons with known kinetic energies. Thus, an irradiation of a solid specimen by monochromatic x-rays causes free electrons with well defined kinetic en…
EVALUATION OF MONOLITHIC POLYCAPILLARY X-RAY LENSES FOR SUB-MM LOCAL XRF ANALYSIS OF ARTISTIC OBJECTSB. Vekemans, K. Janssens, G. Vittiglio, F. Adams, L. Andong and Y. Yiming…China Abstract The analytical possibilities of employing monolithic polycapillary X-ray lenses to focus the divergent X-ray beams produced in a rotating anode X-ray generator (equipped with a MO anode) into convergent beams of sub-mm dimensions …
EVALUATION OF SOME SAMPLE SUPPORT FILMS FOR MICROSAMPLE X-RAY ANALYSISA.W. Wilson, D.C. Turner and A.A. Robbins…Support films must also repeatably position residues to facilitate automated analysis. This positioning has been accomplished using mechanical dimpling as well as by surface treating to make a hydrophilic spot in a hydrophobic field. A new film,…
GRAIN ORIENTATIONS IN ELECTROLYTIC HIGH CONTRACTION AND LOW CONTRACTION CHROMIUM DEPOSITIONS.L. Lee, D. Windover and K. Mello…An enhanced x-ray pole figure technique has been applied to study grain distribution anisotropy in electrolytic high contraction and low contraction chromium. Temperature and current density are the most important factors controlling grain orien…
HIGH RESOLUTION X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF GALLIUM NITRIDE/SILICON CARBIDE HETEROSTRUCTURESH.M. Volz, R.J. Matyi and J.M. Redwing…In virtually all cases we find that simple double crystal rocking curves exhibit multiple peaks that cannot be interpreted with ease. In contrast, high resolution maps of the diffuse intensity distribution about the substrate and layer reciproca…
HIGH RESOLUTION X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND X-RAY REFLECTIVITY STUDIES OF INAS/AIGAASSB DEEP QUANTUM WELLSShin-ya Matsuno, Naohiro Kuze, Hiromasa Goto, Masayuki Kuba, Kazuto Hoshino…This study employs these techniques to investigate the structural properties of InAs/AlGaAsSb deep quantum wells (InAs QWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Crystallinity of the AlGaAsSb layer and its interface roughness with the InAs QWs …
HIGH RESOLUTION X-RAY DIFFRACTION APPLIED TO STRAIN RELAXATION OF LATTICE MISMATCHED SEMICONDUCTOR FILMSP.M. Mooney and J.L. Jordan-Sweet…Recently, a great deal of research has been done on strain relaxation mechanisms in lattice mismatched epitaxial films. Here we describe two high resolution x-ray diffraction experiments performed to study strain relaxation mechanisms and disloc…
IMPROVED INTER-ELEMENT CORRECTION FACTORS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ADDITIVE AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN LUBRICANTSMario Van Driessche, John R. Sieber…Box 509, Beacon, NY 12508 Wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry is the technique used within the Texaco laboratories for the determination of additive and trace elements in fresh oils and additive packages. The main strengths of …
IN VIVO XRF SPECTROSCOPY: SUMMARY OF WORKSHOP IIQ. Ao, R. Gardner, J. Iwanczyk, L. Wielopolski (editors – L. Weilopolski and R. Gardner)…Upton, NY 11973 R. Gardner North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering Raleigh, NC 276957909 Introduction: This is a brief summary of the second workshop on “In Vivo XRF Spectroscopy”, the first one was held in the 1994 De…
INTERNAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS IN THIN TEXTURED COATINGS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION – PROBLEMS AND ATTEMPTS AT THEIR SOLUTIONC. Genzel…This applies especially to the detection of non-uniform residual stress distributions within layers, the thickness of which is small with respect to the penetra- tion depth z of the X-rays. By the example of thin and highly <ill> textured PVD co…
INVESTIGATIONS OF THIN LAYERS BY TEY, XRF, EPMA AND XPS- A COMPARISON OF X-RAY ANALYTICAL METHODSMaria F. Ebel, Robert Svagera, Mario Lindner, Nikolaus Praxmarer, Christian Hager and Horst Ebel…The electrons are Auger, photo, Compton and secondary electrons. In the course of their migration through matter they systematically lose energy by inelastic collisions. Thus, the escape energy of the electrons is in general smaller than their o…
ION-EXCHANGE FILMS FOR ELEMENT CONCENTRATION IN X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS WITH TOTAL REFLECTION OF THE PRIMARY BEAMA.P.Morovov, L.D.Danilin, V.V.Zhmailo, Yu.V.Ignatiev, A.E.Lakhtikov, V.V.Nazarov, M.G.Vasin, V.V.Chulkov, V.N.Funin…A technique to produce 0.1-l urn films was developed. Some sorption properties of such films were studied. Film characteristics were measured on the laboratory mock-up of a TXRF spectrometer. Introduction X-ray fluorescence analysis with total r…
ISSUES WITH TXRF ANGLE SCANS AND CALIBRATIONDennis Werho, Stephen N. Schauer, and George F. Carney…However, when any one of these standards are utilized to calibrate a TXRF system, serious discrepancies (up to 100% relative) are noted when the rest of the standards are analyzed as though they were samples. Since there is very high confidence …
LITHIUM BASED BORATE FUSION OF GYPSUM/HIGH SULFATE SAMPLES: A NEW APPROACHD.J. Broton…Sodium tetraborate disks are also hygroscopic and cannot be stored effectively. Currently many cement plants use lithium tetraborate fusions for raw materials/clinker/cement analysis but SO, loss is generally too high to accurately determine SO,…
LONG TERM STATISTICS OF X-RAY SPECTROMETERSJ.F. Dlouhy, D. Mathieu and K.N. Stoev…As a part of the QA/QC program in this laboratory (Environmental Technology Center), an extensive set of data was collected over a long period of time (about ten years), which was used to study the long term stability of two x-rays spectrometers…
MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC RESIDUAL STRESSES IN CERAMICS DUE TO CONTACT LOADINGWulf Pfeiffer and Michael Rombach…Depth-resolving X-ray residual stress measurements on shot peened samples detect high microplastic deformation and macroscopic compressive residual stresses up to 1.3 GPa at the surface decreasing to zero within 10 pm. These high compressive str…
MAXIMIZING THE IMPACT OF YOUR DATA: APPLICATIONS OF RIETVELD ANALYSIS TO INDUSTRIAL PROBLEM SOLVINGJ.A. Kaduk…The advent of fast computers (especially PCs) overturns this perception, and makes this exciting analytical tool practical for even routine applications. Rietveld analysis provides a convenient and physically-meaningful way of extracting the max…
MEASUREMENT OF MACRO- AND MICROSTRESSES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION METHOD USING IMAGING PLATEToshihiko Sasaki, Shoichi Yasukawa, Shigeki Takago and Yukio Hirose…An imaging plate (IP) was used in this study as an area detector. The method was also applied to the measurement of macro- and microstresses in composite materials. For composite materials, there is a possibility to analyze each Debye-Scherrer r…
MEASUREMENT OF NITRIDED SIO2/SI INTERFACE ROUGHNESS BY CRYSTAL-TRUNCATION ROD PROFILINGJ.L. Jordan-Sweet, R. Ludeke, T.B. Hook and K.W. Evans-Lutterodt…If an overlayer is truly amorphous, the variation of intensity along the truncation rods yields information about the rms roughness of the interface between the crystal substrate and the layer. CTR profiling is a non-destructive probe that can m…
MEASUREMENT OF X-RAY ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF NI3AL USING AN IMAGING PLATETokimasa Goto, Toshihiko Sasaki, Yukio Hirose…An imaging plate (II?) was used as an X-ray detector, and continuous Debye-Scherrer diffraction rings were obtained from such coarse grained material by applying an X-Y plane oscillation method. Mechanical bending stress was applied to the speci…
MICRO-ANALYSIS OF ARTISTS’ PIGMENTS BY GRAZING-EMISSION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRYMartine Claes, Rita Van Ham, Koen Janssens and RenC Van Grieken, Reinhold Klockenkämper and Alex von Bohlen…Artificial paint layer samples and pigments sampled from the 17ti century painting “Madonna with child”, attributed to the Antwerp Baroque painter Pieter Thijs, were used in this study. GEXRF is a new analytical X-ray fluorescence technique usin…
MICRODIFFACTION USING COLLIMATING AND CONVERGENT BEAM POLYCAPILLARY OPTICSS.M. Owens, F.A. Hofmann, C.A. MacDonald and W.M. Gibson…X rays emitted over a large angular range from conventional, laboratory-based sources can be transformed into a beam with a small angular divergence or focused onto a small sample or sample area. Convergent beams of x-rays, with convergence angl…
MICRODIFFRACTION IN THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM)R.P. Goehner, J.R. Michael and M.E. Schlienger…With the development of Charge Coupled Device (CCD)-based detectors, backscattered electron Kikuchi patterns (BEKP), alternately referred to as electron backscattered diffraction patterns (EBSP), can be easily collected. Previously, BEKP has bee…
MINERAL CLASSIFICATION IN THE MINERAL POWDER DIFFRACTION FILED.K. Smith, P. Bayliss and A.C. Roberts…Roberts, Geological Survey of Canada, 762-601 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada KlA OE8 ABSTRACT The concept of the mineral classification in the Mineral Powder Diffraction File (MPDF) is somewhat different from that used in classical minera…
MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF PULSE PILE UPR.P. Gardner and S.H. Lee…In this simulation, the exponential pulse interval distribution is used and the multichannel analyzer (MCA) is assumed to operate perfectly in obtaining and scoring the first local maximum from a sum pulse. Forcing and other variance reduction t…
MULTIPHASE REFINEMENT STUDY OF THE PRBA2CU4O8 COMPOUND BY RIETVELD METHODT.J. Lee, T. S. Lin and C.Y. Wan…The structures of the two samples in crystalline phases have been refined from X-ray powder diffraction data by the Rietveld method. The major phase of the product was confirmed to be PrBaQrJOs, with several minor impurity phases confirmed. The …
NEUTRON MACRO STRESS MAPPINGT. Lorentzen…The present paper describes both experimental and theoretical treatments of these matters with a specific emphasis on the way it influences practical diffraction based characterisation of residual stresses in engineering structures. Introduction…
NEUTRON SCATTERING CHARACTERIZATION OF PURE AND RARE-EARTH MODIFIED ZIRCONIA CATALYSTSJames W. Richardson, Jr., Chun-Keung Loong and Pappannan Thiyagarajan, Masakuni Ozawa and Sugura Suzuki…S. Government under contract W-3 1- 109-ENG-38. Accordingly, the U. S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to pub- lish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow oth- ers to do so, for U. S. Government pu…
NEW THIN FILM STRUCTURES OBSERVED IN THE SR-BI-TA-O SYSTEMMark A. Rodriguez, T. J. Boyle, and B. A. Hemandez…Attempts to isolate these phases as powders failed. However, they were successfUlly isolated via thin film preparation. Samples were prepared as thin films by a chemical preparation route using Sr-acetate, Bi-acetate, and Ta(V)-ethoxide. Thin fi…
NEW X-RAY DETECTORS FOR XRF ANALYSISJan S. Iwanczyk & Bradley E. Patt…One critical issue is the temperature of operation of the detector. Substantial cooling cannot be tolerated because of the difficulties of extracting the heat from a small probe. Another issue is the bias voltage of the detector, which impacts t…
NEW X-RAY DIFFRACTION LINE PROFILE FUNCTION BASED ON CRYSTALLITE SIZE AND STRAIN DISTRIBUTIONS DETERMINED FROM MEAN FIELD THEORY AND STATISTICAL MECHANICSB.R. York…These functions were derived by integrating the Laue interference function sin2(Nx,)/sin2(x,), where xE is the strain dependent order of the reflection, with the crystallite size or strain distributions determined from mean-field theory and stat…
OPTIMIZATION OF TAPERED CAPILLARY OPTICS FOR USE AT THE MICROFOCUS BEAMLINE (ID13) AT THE EUROPEAN SYNCHROTRON RADIATION FACILITY (ESRF)L. Vincze, K. Janssens, F. Adams, A. Rindby, P. Engstrom and C. Riekel…Riekel European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France Abstract Using a detailed 3-dimensional ray-tracing code for the modeling of capillary optics the optimum dimensions of linearly tapered glass capillaries have been calculated for …
PEAK IDENTIFICATION OF CONVENTIONAL X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERNS FOR MBE FEPT THIN FILMS ON MGO SINGLE-CRYSTAL SUBSTRATESH.-C. Lin, H.-C. Chien, Y.-S. Huang, S.-L. Chang and T.-C. Huang…Results showed that both the FePt and the Pt layers were either epitaxially grown or strongly textured with the (110) planes parallel to the surfaces of the MgO (110) substrates. The FePt layer was ordered to the Ll, (AuCu I) phase. An extra str…
POLYGONAL GRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS APPLIED TO SEMI-QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR 3 AND 4 ELEMENTS IN XRFMarcia Garcia and Rodolfo Figueroa…The position of the representative points of the sample peak areas is correlated with the position of the quantitative points in a choice polygonal graphic for a set of elements in known samples. This methodology is proposed for samples with dif…
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL INVERSE PROBLEM TECHNIQUE TO CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTILAYERSA. Yu. Nikulin and P.V. Petrashen…The main difficulty appearing on this way is the existence of multiple solutions of the inverse problem. We describe here a new approach that allows to write explicit formulae for solutions in the framework of kinematical df@action theory and se…
PRECISION OF ABSOLUTE LATTICE PARAMETERS MEASURED BY DOUBLE AXIS DIFFRACTOMETRYM.A. Davidson and S.R. Stock…Measuring diffraction peak positions for the unknown sample and for a reference crystal at two orientations of the sample stage (0” and 180” azimuthal orientations) allows absolute lattice parameters to be determined on instruments designed for …
PRELIMINARY COMPARISON OF MONOLITHIC AND APERTURE OPTICS FOR MXRFGeorge J. Havrilla, Christopher G. Worley…The results demonstrate the feasibility of retrofitting an Omicron with a monolithic capillary. Increased flux is observed especially at lower energies, which results in an increase in sensitivity and a potential increase in spatial resolution. …
PROFILE FITTING AND DIFFRACTION LINE-BROADENING ANALYSISDaniel Louer and Nathalie Audebrand…Fourier analysis of individual diffraction line profiles, for which theories are well established’. With the advent of fitting techniques, analytical models of individual components can be extracted from clusters of reflections with reasonable a…
PULSED LASER DEPOSITION OF LATERALLY GRADED NI/C-MULTILAYERS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN PARALLEL BEAM X-RAY OPTICST. Holz, R. Dietsch, H. Mai,L. Briigemann, S. Hopfe, R. Scholz, R. Krawietz, B. Wehner…Scholz, MPI fir Mikrostrukturphysik, Am Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle, Germany. Krawietz, B. Wehner, TU Dresden, Momtnsenstrafie 13, D-01069 Dresden, Germany Abstract Since the end of the eighties Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) has been successfully …
QUANTIFICATION OF TXRF ANALYSISI. Szaloki, T. Utaka, Y. Tsuji and K. Taniguchi…The theoretical calculation considers the geometrical parameters of the detection system and the specimen parameters: size, thickness, angle of the excitation beam to the surface and the optical properties of the specimen holder. The characteris…
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THIN FILMS AND MULTIPLE THIN FILM STRUCTURES BY MONTE-CARLO TECHNIQUESM. Mantler…For the first time, secondary excitation by photo-electrons have been taken into account in thin films, which has not been possible so far with conventional findamental parameter methods. Application of the MC-method to ho- mogeneous thin films …
QUANTITATIVE PHASE ANALYSIS USING THE RIETVELD METHOD FOR SAMPLES IN THE TI-CR BINARY SYSTEMSOfer Beeri and Giora Kimmel…The diffractograms of samples from different sources showed that the major contribution to the intensities came from the cubic phase (C15) CuzMg type. A second phase was identified as the hexagonal (C36) MgNi2 type. The two phases yield complica…
QUANTITATIVE PHASE ANALYSIS USING THE WHOLE-POWDER-PATTERN DECOMPOSITION METHOD: APPLICATION TO TEN-COMPONENT MIXTURES AND NATURAL PRODUCTSShigeo Hayashi and Hideo Toraya…Average deviations of the calculated weight fractions of respective phases from those prepared in mixing were within 1 weight percent (wt.%), and they were smaller than those obtained by using Rietveld refinement in the present analysis. Minor p…
QUANTITATIVE TEY (TOTAL ELECTRON YIELD) – THEORY, INSTRUMENTATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTSHorst Ebel, Robert Svagera, Maria F. Ebel and Matthias Baron…Quantitative analyses of binary alloy systems and layer thicknesses of elemental layers and compositions and thicknesses of ternary layers on binary substrates were the subjects of further papers, to be continued by the evaluation of measured TE…
REDUCTION OF THE SAMPLE SIZE IN THE ANALYSIS OF ROCK BY EDXRFRiidiger Harmel, Ulrike Otto, Olaf Haupt, Clemens Schäfer and Walter Dannecker…In the analysis of samples from ancient buildings and historic monuments, like churches, chapels and castles, the composition of stones from damaged and yet undamaged parts is of interest to find out if the weathered stones have lost salts by el…
RESIDUAL STRESS GRADIENTS IN A TUNGSTEN FILM BY GRAZING-INCIDENCE XRDT. Ely, P.K. Predecki and I.C. Noyan…Diffraction patterns of the 321, 222, 310, 220, and 211 reflections were obtained with Cu Kα radiation at incidence angle s α from 0.6 t o α = θ, the Bragg angle, using pseudo parallel-beam optics. The patterns showed only th e α-W phase, but ma…
RESIDUAL STRESSES IN A MULTILAYER SYSTEM OF COATINGSArthur J. McGinnis, Thomas R. Watkins and K. Jagannadham…Insertion of an appropriate intermediate layer between the coating and the substrate has been used to improve adhesion and wear resistance. In this study, the multilayer structures consisted of diamond/molybdenum carbide/molybdenum (substrate) a…
RESULTS OF X-RAY INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRATION PRODUCTS OF CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS USING SPECIAL SPECIMEN HOLDERS AND PREPARATION TECHNIQUESHerbert Poellmann…In this study the hydration products of the aluminate phase especially under the influence of additional chloride ions were studied. Special X-ray measurement conditions must be applied for accurate identification including 1. In situ control of…
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS FOR SEMI-QUANTITATIVE XRF ANALYSISPeter L Warren, Pamela Y Shadforth…However, as XRF is a relative rather than absolute technique, quantitative determinations need matrix matched standards, or suitable reference materials. If these are not available, or if the analytical requirement is limited to identifying the …
SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION FROM END WINDOW X-RAY TUBESN. Broll and P. de Chateaubourg…In this paper we present measured spectral intensity distributions from end window x-ray tubes (Au, Rh, Cu and Cr anodes) typically used in wavelength and energy dispersive spectrometers. The spectral distribution of the x-ray tubes measured wit…
STRAIN AND STRESS MEASUREMENT WITH A TWO-DIMENSIONAL DETECTORBaoping Bob He and Kingsley L. Smith…However, the conventional method can only use a small fraction of the diffraction data collected by a 2D (two-dimensional) detector. In the new method, a direct relationship between the stress tensor and the diffraction conic section distortion …
STUDY OF HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION KINETICS OF STEEL USING GRAZING X-RAY REFLECTOMETRYA. Knoll, E. Smigiel, N. Broll and A. Cornet…In order to know the mechanisms of oxidation several experimental methods, e.g. thermogravimetry, are well established. Nevertheless, X- ray methods are not widely used in this field of research. We introduced X-ray reflectometry to investigate …
STUDY OF LIGHT ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THIN FILMS FOR FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETER METHODY. Kataoka, N. Kawahara, T. Arai and M. Uda…We have introduced the effect of the traveling of an electron in a material to the calculation. The relationships between energy and traveled distance of electrons were estimated by using a Monte Carlo simulation. Carbon films on silicon wafers …
SYNCHROTRON WHITE BEAM X-RAY TOPOGRAPHY STUDIES OF STRUCTURAL DEFECTS IN MICROGRAVITY-GROWN CDZNTE SINGLE CRYSTALSB. Raghothamachar, H. Chung, M. Dudley and D.J. Larson, Jr.…Synchrotron x-ray topography studies of structural defects in microgravity-grown CdZnTe single crystals on flight USML-1 revealed a dramatic improvement in structural quality with much lower defect densities, particularly in regions that solidif…
TEXTURE CHANGE ASSOCIATED WITH ROLLING CONTACT NEAR THE SURFACE OF CARBURIZED STEELTodd W. Snyder, Robert J. DeAngelis, W.N. Weins, John D. Makinson, Robert V. Lawrence…Lawrence Brenco Inc., P.O. Box 389, Pertersburg, VA 23804 Abstract The crystallographic texture of retained austenite and martensite near the surface of an experimental case-carburized tapered roller bearing cone was determined in the “as produc…
THE EFFECT OF CO CONTENT ON FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF WC-CO CEMENTED CARBIDESMyung-Hwan Boo, Sae-Wook Oh, Young-Chul Park, Yukio Hirose…The precrack was introduced by the EC method. Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted at a constant stress ratio R (=O.l, 0.5) and constant frequencyf(=lOHz). The Paris law was confirmed between daldN and hK on these materials. The fractograph…
THE EFFECT OF THE DIFFRACTOMETER’S RESOLUTION FUNCTION IN HIGH RESOLUTION TRIPLE CRYSTAL X-RAY DIFFRACTIONP.D. Moran and R.J. Matyi…The mathematical framework for describing the resolution fimction is described. With the use of this methodology, excellent agreement has been obtained between calculated reciprocal space maps and those recorded from nominally defect-free crysta…
THE EFFECTS OF RESONANT CYCLING ON SOFT LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE (PZT)J.D. Makinson and D. Breiner…I [21 The response of PZT to an AC field with frequency close to the longitudinal resonance frequency is sensitive to the electrical, mechanical, and thermal loading conditions. During cycling of the PZT, a non-uniform temperature distribution d…
THE IN VIVO MEASUREMENT OF TRACE HEAVY METALS BY K X-RAY FLUORESCENCEFiona E. McNeil1 and Joanne M. O’Meara…There are particular difficulties associated with in vivo XRF elemental analysis; measurements are limited by dose and time and the human body is a low atomic number elemental matrix which results in a large scattering background. However, this …
THE LOCAL STRUCTURE OF MISCIBLE POLYMER BLENDSG.R. Mitchell and Y.-S. Chiou…For many materials a sing phase is never formed, whi for others, the miscib state is only obtained at low temperatures. The classic description of the interaction between two polymers is via the Flory-Huggins theory (for examp see [l]) in which …
THE VALIDITY OF THE COHERENT SCATTER PEAK NORMALIZATION OF X-RAY INTENSITIES DETECTED DURING IN VIVO XRF MEASUREMENTS OF METALS IN BONEJ.M. O’Meara, D.R. Chettle and F.E. McNeill…However, it was further shown that the need for extensive corrections for all these factors can be eliminated through the use of coherently scattered y-rays as a normalization parameter for the x-ray intensities detected. The legitimacy of the n…
THREE-DIMENSIONAL MICROBEAM DIFFRACTION TOMOGRAPHY OF FATIGUE CRACK ASPERITIES IN AL-LI 2090J.D. Haase, D.P. Piotrowski, A. Guvenilir, J.R. Witt and S.R. Stock…Understanding the link between this alloy’s fatigue crack behavior and its macrotexture requires a three-dimensional, non-destructive method of measuring the evolution of strain along the crack growth path. Synchrotron polychromatic x-ray diffra…
TIME-RESOLVED STUDIES OF ALUMINA CERAMICS PROCESSING WITH NEUTRON AND SYNCHROTRON RADIATION DATABrian O’Connor, Deyu Li, Bee K Gan, Bruno Latella and John Carter…Outcomes from three related studies are examined. l Calcination of alumina hydrates to o-alumina via intermediate aluminas, including some new results indicating the co-existence of cubic and tetragonal y-alumina polymorphs following boehmite de…
TIME-RESOLVED X-RAY RHEOLOGY APPLIED TO CRYSTALLIZABLE POLYMERSG.R. Mitchell, J.A. Pople, E. Andresen and P.G. Brownsey…Introduction The use of in-situ probes to explore the structural changes which accompany polymer processing procedures can provide considerable insight into the critical stages of such processes. X-ray scattering techniques appear to have much t…
TRIPLE AXIS DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF INP GRATING STRUCTURESG.D. U’Ren, M.S. Goorsky, E.M. Koontz, G.S. Petrich, L.A. Kolodziejski,M.H.Lim, V.V. Wang, H.I. Smith, K.M. Matney, and M. Wormington…Initial studies of gratings etched in the InP substrate using x-ray lithography and reactive ion etching determined the period of the grating to be – 2300 A, the linewidthperiod ratio to be 1:2, and the grating thickness to be – 1100 A. By monit…
USE OF POLYCAPILLARY OPTICS IN XRF ANALYSIS AND DIFFRACTION INVESTIGATIONSMuradin A.Kumakhov…The version of a small x-ray diffractometer based on polycapillary optics with the monochromatic parallel photon flux of the order of 10” photon&mm2 was proposed. The possibility of creating a portable x-ray spectrometer with a detection limit I…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF MBE FEXPT1-X (X = 0.5 APPROX.) THIN FILMSH.C. Chien, S.L. Chang, R.F.C. Farrow, D Weller, R.F. Marks and T.C. Huang…Perpendicular and in-plane layer structures were studied using symmetric-Bragg and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively. The films were found to be epitaxially grown on MgO (110) single-crystal substrates, and minor amoun…
X-RAY ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF SINTERED HIGH CHROMIUM STEEL CONTAINING TITANIUM NITRIDE : COMPARISON OF MODELSMasaharu Miyano , Toshihiko Sasaki, Shigeki Takago, Shouichi Ejiri,Yukio Hirose Yukio Hirose…This material is used in practice for valve seats, which are one of the parts in diesel engines for automobiles. The purpose of this study is to carry out a fundamental investigation on an application of the method of x-ray stress measurement to…
X-RAY OPTICAL CONSIDERATIONS ON PARABOLIC GRADED MULTILAYERS ON THE DIFFRACTED BEAM SIDE IN X-RAY DIFFRACTIONR. Stammer, R. Hopler , M. Schuster and H. Goebel…D-85748 Garching, Germany ABSTRACT Parabolically curved graded multilayer mirrors, so-called Gobel mirrors, have opened up new applications as x-ray optical devices. They are applied as condensing reflectors to convert divergent x-rays from labo…
X-RAY STUDY OF SOFT AND HARD MAGNETIC THIN FILMSPo-Wen Wang…INTRODUCTION The recording head and disk thin film media are key components in the hrad disk industry[1].The read/write sensors are primarily made of soft NiFe magnetic material, whereas the current longitudinal media is sputtered with hard magn…
XRD AND VSM ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURED CU-CO ALLOYSS.K. Gupta and M.G. Gartley…Each Ka doublet was resolved by fitting a Pearson Type VII profile. Precise lattice parameter as a function of cobalt content deviated significantly from Vegard’s law but was in reasonable agreement with King’s analysis. VSM measurements showed …
XRF ANALYSIS OF ROCKS AND MINERALS FOR MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENTS ON A SINGLE LOW DILUTION LI-TETRABORATE FUSED BEADD.M. Johnson, P.R. Hooper and R.M. Conrey…The increased efficiency of using a single bead for major and trace elements is achieved without loss of precision or accuracy and the beads may be stored for tens of years without degradation. Introduction Of the many advantages in applying X-r…
XRF OF INHOMOGENEOUS SPECIMENS BY MONTE-CARLO TECHNIQUESM. Mantler…The present paper concentrates on inhomo- geneities in samples from the view-point of light elements. Analysis of light elements differs from conventional applications by: § Low intensities due to very low fluorescent yields (e.g. ωcarbon ≈ 10-3…


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1996 – VOL40

A CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR POSITION SENSITIVE DETECTORS USED IN NEUTRON RESIDUAL STRAIN MAPPINGXiaojing Zhu and Camden R. Hubbard…While this PSD/MCA system can be used for strain measurement, it needs to be calibrated and the calibration parameters stored for later retrieval in data analysis. The relationship between precision of peak location and counting statistics is an…
A SIMPLE 2-D MICROFLUORESCENCE UNITJ. Carsello…The X-ray source is a Elliott microfocus rotating anode machine with a target size of 200 micrometer, fitted with a tapered glass capillary tube. The capillary tubes are fabricated in the facility and produce a beam size of about 10 microns. The…
A SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION OF STRAIN BROADENING FROM STRETCHED ALUMINUM FOILS USING A CONVOLUTION-FITTING APPROACH TO LINE PROFILE ANALYSISR.W. Cheary, A. Coelho, W. Kalceff and M. Smith…Macroscopic residual strains from 4% to values close to the breaking point (220%) were induced by stretching annealed foils beyond the yield point into the plastic deformation region and then releasing the applied stress. X-ray data were collect…
AN ANALYSIS OF SECONDARY ENHANCEMENT EFFECTS IN QUANTITATIVE XRFAM. Mantler…The “conventional energy range” is closely related to the spectral distribution of the primary radiation (generally from an x-ray tube), which extends with useful intensi- ties roughly from a few keV to about 30-60keV depending on tube design an…
AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK ANALYSIS OF LOW-RESOLUTION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTRAXianguan Long, Ning Huang, Taihua Li, Fuqing He and Xiufeng Peng…Instead of peak analysis and fitting the experimental results to a mathematical function as used by the conventional algorithms, the artificial neural network method takes the spectrum as a whole, comparing its shape with the patterns learned du…
AN INVESTIGATION OF METAL THIN FILMS USING X-RAY REFLECTIVITY AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPYD.M. Solina, R.W. Cheary, F.A. Lupscha and P.D. Swift…Preliminary results are presented on the effects of film thickness, atomic number, and gas pressure during fabrication. Significant differences between the surface film roughness obtained using X-ray Reflectivity and Atomic Force Microscopy are …
APPLICATION OF DIFFRACTION PEAK PROFILE ANALYSIS TO STUDY THE FORMATION OF ZINC PRODUCTS IN THE INITIAL CORROSION STAGESP. Quintana, L. Veleva and L. Banes*…Instituto de Investigation en Materiales, UNAM, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F., Mexico. ABSTRACT Zinc flat sheet specimens were exposed at two different corrosion atmospheres: marine and rural-urban, in a humid tropical climate of the Peninsula of Yuc…
APPLICATIONS OF NEW, HIGH INTENSITY X-RAY OPTICS – NORMAL AND THIN FILM DIFFRACTION USING A PARABOLIC, MULTILAYER MIRRORS.B. Robie…Peak intensity from the mirror was 5.2 times higher than the for Bragg-Brentano case for a 1.15 mm wide sample. Conversely, the Bragg-Brentano case was superior for large samples, presumably because the greatly decreased irradiated volume due to…
BRAGG AND BARKLA POLARIZATION IN EDXRFJ. Heckel and R. Schramm…The high, integrated reflectivity of the HOPG crystal improves detection limits and sensitivities for Na, Mg, Al, Si, P and S-traces in light and heavy matrices in comparison with direct and secondary target excitation. The A1203 target has prov…
CHARACTERIZATION OF ANNEALED CU-NI MULTILAYERS USING X-RAY DIFFRACTIONJ. Chaudhuri, K. Low and A.F. Jankowski…The annealing times of the multilayers varied from 0 hour to 20 hours. The strain in each layer was found by fitting the theoretical peak intensities with the experimental ones by iteration and using a kinematical/dynamical theory of x-ray diffr…
CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY-SUBSTITUTED (BI,PB)2SR2CA2CU3OX(2223) HIGH-TC PHASE USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION AND NEUTRON DIFFRACTION DATAD. Y. Li, B. H. O’Connor, A. van Riessen, C. W. MacKinnon, D. J. Cookson, R. F. Garrett and B. A. Hunter…J. Cookson, R.F. Garrett and B.A. Hunter, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW, Australia 2234 ABSTRACT Hg-substituted (Bi,Pb)-(2223) high-T, superconductor material, synthesised by a process involving solid …
CHARACTERIZATION OF SI1-X GEX LAYERS WITH GRAZING X-RAY REFLECTIONR.Treichler, H.Schafer, W.Hiisler, H.Goebel…It is predictable that the standard Si homojunction devices will soon run into serious limits. Therefore the properties of Si,Gel, layers for Si-based bandgap engineering have attracted wide attention. The success of modem CVD and MBE techniques…
CHEMICAL ACCURACY AND PRECISION IN STRUCTURAL REFINEMENTS FROM POWDER DIFFRACTION DATAJ. A. Kaduk…Before we can discuss the significance of these error estimates, we need to be precise and accurate about what we mean by accuracy and precision. A convenient guide to improving both our thinking and terminology has been prepared by the IUCr Com…
COMPARISON OF VARIOUS X-RAY OPTICS FOR ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS WITH X-RAY TUBESBirgi t Kanngiejer, Burkhard BeckhofJ Wolfgang Malzer,Vladimir A. Arkadiev, Aniour A. Bzhaumikhov, Hans-Eberhard Gorny,…The optics are compared with respect to their reflection efficiency, their energy selectivity, and their focusing performance. The measurements were carried out under identical experimental conditions in a vacuum chamber with automatically contr…
DETECTION OF SUBMONOLAYERS BY MEASUREMENT OF THE TOTAL ELECTRON YIELD (TEY) OF X-RAY EXCITED ELECTRON EMISSIONHorst Ebel, Robert Svagera, Christian Hager, Maria F.Ebel, Horst Ebel, Robert Svagera, Christian Hager, Maria F.Ebel, Christian Eisenmenger-Sittner, Johann Wernisch, and Michael Mantler…An essential feature in quantitative TEY is the statistical significance of the measured TEY jumps. The present investigations are dedicated to the detection limit of TEY for extremely thin layers and consequently, on the minimum detectable mass…
DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTAL IMPURITIES IN U3O8 BY WAVELENGTH-DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRYJozef Leon Parus, Wolfgang Raab, Renata Mikolajczak…A sequential wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer was used to perform the measurements. The measurement conditions were optimized to assure the best signal to background ratios and the minimum spectral interferences. Nineteen elements (Al, B…
DEVELOPMENT OF FAST TEXTURE MAPPING SYSTEM WITH ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY DIFFRACTION METHODM. Imafuku…Total time of measurement was reduced more than half by the adoption of a fast data transmission interface. Some examples are demonstrated in order to show the performance of the system. This approach is suitable for the study of local inhomogen…
DIFFRACTION LINE-PROFILE SHAPE BY SYNCHROTRON AND LABORATORY X-RAY SOURCESDavor Balzar, Peter W. Stephens , and Hassel Ledbetter…Box 1016, 10001 Zagreb, Croatia ABSTRACT We compared diffraction-line profiles obtained at the X3Bl NSLS powder-diffraction beamline and with a standard CuKa,,, sealed source. An NIST SRM LaB, was used as the standard material to study the effec…
EFFECTS OF THERMAL FATIGUE ON NITRIDING HOT WORKING DIE STEEL (H13)Koji Yatsushiro and Masahiko Hihara, Katsuhiro Tagawa and Makoto Kuramoto…Thermal fatigue behaviour was investigated by the thermal fatigue test and the heating test. The results obtained are as follows: (I) The X-ray stress constant of nitriding specimen A (E – Fez_sN and y’ -Fe4N, treated at 843K for 6h) was KA= -64…
GRAZING INCIDENCE X-RAY MEASUREMENT OF INTERFACE ROUGHNESS IN SPUTTERED CU/CO MULTILAYERSB.K. Tanner, D. Joyce, T.P.A. Hase, I. Pape and P.J. Grundy…Compared with structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) the roughness at the Cu/Co interfaces has little conformality and is almost uncorrelated between the bottom and the top. The lateral correlation length is short in comparison with th…
GRAZING INCIDENCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR THE CHARACTERISATION OF INP WAFERSC. D. Moore, T.P.A. Hase and B. K. Tanner…Excellent agreement between experimental and simulated data is achieved when graded surface layers typically 3081 in thickness, and of higher density than the bulk material, are included. Figuring was found on all samples examined and the width …
GRAZING-INCIDENCE X-RAY TECHNIQUE FOR SURFACE, INTERFACE AND THIN-FILM ANALYSIST. C. Huang, IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose CA 95 119;P. K. Predecki, Department of Engineering, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208…In a grazing-incidence experiment, the detector is placed in a horizontal plane parallel to the film surface to record diffraction from lattice planes which are perpendicular to the surface. An example on the analysis of molecular-beam epitaxial…
HEAVY ION BACKSCATTERING SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS OF TXRF CALIBRATION STANDARDSD. Werho, R. B. Gregory, S. N. Schauer, X. Liu, G. F. Carney, Motorola, Inc., AZ; J. C. Banks, D. Werho, R. B. Gregory, S. N. Schauer, X. Liu, G. F. Carney, Motorola, Inc., AZ; J. C. Banks, J. A. Knapp, B. L. Doyle, Sandia National Labs, NM; and A. C. Diebold, Sematech, TX …Unfortunately, TXRF is not a first principles technique, and the answers one obtains are only as good as the standards used to calibrate the instrument. One of the concerns has always been the accuracy of the primary standards, as large instrume…
HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDY OF PARTIALLY RELAXED INGAAS/GAAS MULTIQUANTUM WELL P-I-N DIODES ON (001) GAASA. Sanz-Hen, J.F. Valtuefia, M. Garrido, J.P.R. David, C. Villarg, E.J. Abrilt,M. Aguilar, I. Izpura , R. Greyt, F. Gonzalez-Sanz , R. Lorenzoz, and M. Lopez…Telecomunicacion, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. E-mail: hervas@etsit.upm.es * Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, E.T.S.I. Telecomunicacion, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. T Department of Electronic and Electrical En…
IN SITU THIN FILM CRYSTALLIZATION STUDIES USING HIGH TEMPERATURE GRAZING INCIDENCE X-RAY DIFFRACTION (HTGIXRD)Mark A. Rodriguez and Ralph G. Tissot, Sandia National Laboratories…Temperature calibration techniques, sample positioning issues, and limitations of this analysis technique are discussed. Applications of this technique to crystallization of several ceramic thin films include qualitative investigations such as m…
INFLUENCE OF IMAGE PROCESSING CONDITIONS OF DEBYE-SCHERRER RING IMAGES IN X-RAY STRESS MEASURMENT USING AN IMAGING PLATEToshihiko SASAKI, Yukio HIROSE, Katsunari SASAKI, Shoichi YASUKA WA…The theory of the stress determination proposed by Taira et al (1978) was shown and advanced to make measurable all plane stress components. The experiment showed good agreement with stresses applied mechanically. INTRODUCTION X-ray stress measu…
INFLUENCE OF THE SPECTROSCOPIC RESOLUTION ON THE XRF ANALYSIS OF ARSENICJoseph F. Dlouhy, Krassimir N. Stoev…The samples are collected by filtration, sedimentation, impaction or other techniques. They might be natural samples or samples prepared by some powderization procedure (e.g. milling, grinding etc.) from coarser materials. The x-ray fluorescence…
INVESTIGATION OF COMPRESSION AND THERMAL EXPANSION OF A-MNTE USING A CUBIC-ANVIL X-RAY DIFFRACTION PRESSW. Paszkowicz, E. Dynowska and T. Peun…The high pressures and temperatures were obtained with the help of a cubic anvil X-ray diffraction press, MAX80. Unit-cell parameters were determined at 296 “K at pressures up to 67.5 kbar and at fixed pressure of 67.5 kbar in the temperature ra…
INVESTIGATIONS OF THIN TIN-FILMS USING GRAZING INCIDENCE REFLECTOMETRY AND DIFFRACTOMETRYJ. Klimke, C. Eggs and H. Wulff…The films were investigated with grazing incidence asymmetric Bragg diffraction (GIABD) and grazing incidence reflectometry to get information about the plasma-wall interaction. Both methods were performed with a conventional SIEMJZNS D5000 diff…
LATTICE PARAMETERS OF BATIO3 SOLID SOLUTIONS CONTAINING DY AND HO AT HIGH TEMPERATUREHitoshi OHSATO, Motoaki IMAEDA, Yoshikazn OKINO, Hiroshi KISHI, Takashi OKUDA…Ltd. 1660 Kamisatomi Haruna-Ma&i Gunma-Gun, Gunma 370-33, JAPAN Abstracts BaTi solid solutions containing Dy or Ho for capacitors with a multi-layer structure are examined in order to reveal the solubility mode of rare-earth in perovskite. As th…
MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES OF X-RAY FLUORESCENCE FOR BPSG FILMSK.O. Goyal and J.W. Westphal…Accurate control of boron and phosphorus concentrations in these films, is essential in maintaining desired film properties. The narrowing process specification limits with the industry trend towards shrinking device sizes, is putting an increas…
MEASUREMENT OF ACTUAL STRESSES DURING FATIGUE PROCESSHironori Nishihata, Shin-ichi Ohya and Yasuo Yoshioka…However, it is difficult to detect the crack initiation from the change in residual stress because no significant change in residual stress occur during the fatigue process. Residual stress generally changes at the initial stage of whole fatigue…
MULTIPLE-DETECTOR SYSTEM FOR POWDER DIFFRACTION WITH SYNCHROTRON RADIATIONH. Toraya…The optics design is based on a flat-specimen-reflection geometry using parallel-beam, and the intensity data are collected by using asymmetric 2@step- scanning at a fixed incident angle. The multiple-detector system makes it possible to collect…
NEUTRON DIFFRACTION MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING OF RESIDUAL STRAINS IN METAL MATRIX COMPOSITESC.R. Hubbard, S.T. Misture, X. L. Wang, A. Saigal and G.G. Leisk…Results of finite element modeling are compared with the neutron diffraction data. In tungsten/Kanthal composites, the fibers are in compression, the matrix is in tension, and the thermal residual strains are a strong function of the volume frac…
NEW LOW- AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE POWDER DIFFRACTION FACILITIES AT DARESBURY LABORATORYC.C. Tang, G. Bushnell-Wye, S.M. Clark, M.C. Miller, T. Rathbone and A.A. Neild…The cryostat and the furnace are designed to operate at temperature ranges of lo- 290 K and 290-1500 K, respectively. In this paper we describe the commissioning of the low- and high-temperature devices for high resolution powder diffractometry….
NEW PERFORMANCES OF SOFT X-RAY SPECTROMETRY (LEEIXS) IN SURFACE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC MATERIALSM. Romand, M. Charbonnier and J. Baborowski…In addition, these examples point out the sensitivity of the technique down to the submonolayer range and highlight the potential of LEEIXS as a well- suited optimisation and monitoring tool for surface treatment processes. INTRODUCTION Within t…
NON-DESTRUCTIVE AND PARTIALLY DESTRUCTIVE DETERMINATION OF RESIDUAL STRESS STATES WITH STEEP SUBSURFACE GRADIENTSB. Eigenmann…If a homogeneous, macroscopically isotropic polycrystalline material is investigated using the well established standard methods of X-ray residual stress analysis like the sin21C,-method [l], the DSlle-Hauk-method [2], or the q-integral method […
NOVEL USE OF IMAGING PLATES IN POWDER DIFFRACTION ON THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL BEAMLINE FACILITYD.J. Cookson and R.F. Garrett…On this instrument, a Weissenberg screen and translatable imaging plate cassette allow a series of up to 35 complete powder patterns to be taken in rapid succession. The high sensitivity and dynamic range of imaging plates mean that exposure tim…
ORIGINS OF OSCILLATIONS IN D VS. SIN2Y PLOTS MEASURED FROM TUNGSTEN THIN FILMSI.C. Noyan and C.C. Goldsmith…W thin films. It is shown that the oscillatory behaviour can be the result of the phase transformation from the metastable P-W, which can cause the formation of two layers with opposite stresses in single-phase a-W films. INTRODUCTION The classi…
PARALLEL BEAM POWDER DIFFRACTOMETRY USING A LABORATORY X-RAY SOURCER.D. Deslattes, J.-L. Staudenmann, L.T. Hudson, A. Henins and J.P. Cline…The beam preparation optic uses a graded-spacing parabolic multilayer to gather radiation from a small focus x-ray source and a subsequent planar multilayer with spacing near the mean of the graded multilayer to redirect the radiation toward the…
PARTICULATE CONTAMINATION FROM TXRF INSTRUMENTATIONDennis Werho, Thomas Wetteroth, Stephen N. Schauer, and George F. Carney…In practice this seldom occurs due to concerns about the cleanliness of the TXRF system. This paper describes the results of tests on the particulate levels introduced by several TXRF instruments. The top (polished) sides of bare silicon wafers …
POWDER DIFFRACTION STUDY OF ZN1-X MGXSE ALLOYSW. Paszkowicz, Z. Spolnik, F. Firszt and H. Meczynska…Below x=0.2 there is a phase transition from sphalerite to wurtzite. The lattice constants are found to exhibit linear dependence on x for both, the sphalerite and wurtzite structure types. For compositions close to the phase transition, the for…
POWDER PATTERN DECOMPOSITION WITH THE AID OF PREFERRED ORIENTATIONR. Cerny…Empirical preferred orientation correction with axial symmetry is used. The method is tested on several sets of simulated powder patterns. Introduction Powder patterns collected at various values of some parameter which influences either the pos…
QUANTIFICATION OF CARBON IN A BINARY SYSTEM BY THE FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETER METHODFranz A. Weber, Luiz B. Da Silva, Troy W. Barbee, Jr., and Dino Ciarlo…Carbon gridlines with known parameters have been deposited on top of medium 2 disks in order to achieve well defined both absorption and excitation geometries. The grids having various thicknesses exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of mec…
QUANTITATIVE PHASE ANALYSIS USING A NEW RIETVELD ALGORITHM – ASSISTED BY IMPROVED STABILITY AND CONVERGENCE BEHAVIORJ. Bergmann, R. Kleeberg, T. Taut and A. Haase…Rich. Seifert & Co. Freiberger Prazisionsmechanik GmbH, Am St. Niclas Schacht 13, D-09599 Freiberg, Germany Haase, A. Rich. Seifert & Co., P.O. Box 1280 D-22902 Ahrensburg, Germany Copyright 0 JCPDS-International Centre for Diffraction Data 1997…
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CALCULATED REFERENCE POWDER DIFFRACTION PATTERNSC. K. Lowe-Ma, J. P. Cline, C. E. Crowder, J. A. Kaduk, S. B. Robie, D. K. Smith and R.A. Young…However, with the availability of increasing amounts of single-crystal-derived structural information, calculating powder patterns for identifi- cation and comparison may be easier, in some circumstances, than generating experimental ref- erence…
RESIDUAL MACROSTRESS IN PLASMA-SPRAYED B4C COATINGSW. Fischer, H. Gruhn, V.R. Vosberg, W. Mallener, and H. Stover…Background Technical ceramics like A&.03, B&, Si3N4, Sic, ZrOz, and WC exhibit good properties for high- temperature applications. They are used, for instance, as protective coatings for metallic components under combined thermal and mechanical …
RESIDUAL STRAIN MEASUREMENT IN THERMAL BARRIER COATINGSThomas R. Watkins, Scott P. Beckman ’ and Camden R. Hubbard…The specimens consisted of electron beam assisted physical vapor deposited, yttria -stabilized zirconia top coat on a RenC N5 superalloy substrate with a “PtAl” bond coat in-between the two. Both the as-received and heat treated specimens showed…
RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF CERAMIC COATINGS BY MEANS OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION XRDP. Scardi, M. Leoni and S. Veneri…In both cases, the use of synchrotron radiation, and the possibility of changing wavelength in particular, permitted to study the residual stress trend inside the ceramic layers. For the diamond coated component, the stress analysis was extended…
ROUTINE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS BY VERBA-XRFP. O. Verkhovodov…The coefficients of this set of coupling equations are independent of the chemical composition of the sample. The calibration of the spectrometer is made for the entire range from 0.001 to 80% for each element being detected. The method provides…
SECOND ORDER STRESSES IN SINGLE PHASE AND MULTIPHASE MATERIALS: EXAMPLES OF EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING APPROACHESJ.L. Lebrun and K. Inal…In between meters and nanometers, theoretical classifications, mechanical developments and experimental measurements are moving, depending on one’s aim but also on the progress of techniques and models. A scale definition is given in figure 1 wh…
SELFCONSISTENT EVALUATION OF RESIDUAL SHEAR STRESS PROFILES NEAR GROUND SURFACESH. Wern…With the X-Ray-Integral-AJethod(RIM)Z it is now possible to determine the depth profiles of strains and stresses as a function of the true depth below the surface. However, any shear stress component parallel to a free surface must be zero at th…
SEPARATION OF STRUCTURAL DEFECTS IN MOCVD GROWN GAN AND AIN FILMS ON C-PLANE SAPPHIRE BY HR-XRDT. Metzger, R. Stommer, M. Schuster, H. Gobel, E. Born, 0. Ambacher and M. Stutzmann…D-85747 Garching, Germany 3 Walter Schottky Institute, Technical University Munich, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching, Germany ABSTRACT A novel triple-axis diffractometer equipped with a parabolically curved graded multilayer, which replaces the …
SOLID SOLUTION BEHAVIOUR OF SYNTHETIC MONAZITE AND XENOTIME FROM STRUCTURE REFINEMENT OF POWDER DATABOB VAN EMDEN, MIKE R. THORNBER, JIM GRAHAM AND FRANK J. LINCOLN.…MIKE R. THORNBER, Special Research Centre for Advanced Mineral and Materials Processing. CSIRO, Division of Minerals, Waterford, W.A., 6102, Australia. JIM GRAHAM AND FRANK J. LINCOLN. Special Research Centre for Advanced Mineral and Materials P…
STRAIN BROADENING CAUSED BY DISLOCATIONST. Ungar…In the present work it will be shown that this formalism can be incorporated into the classical methods of Williamson-Hall and Warren-Averbach. The new procedures are suggested to be called modified Williamson-Hall and modified Warren- Averbach …
STRUCTURAL PHASE TRANSITIONS AND CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF CSH2PO4 CRYSTALSWieslawa Bronowska,Wybrzeie Wyspiahkiego…The ferroelectric low-temperature phase (space group P2/) with completely ordered hydrogen bonds transforms to the paraelectric phase (space group P2Jm) with partly disordered hydrogen bonds. Single crystal and powder diffraction investigations …
STRUCTURE SOLUTION OF LITHIUM DIBORATE HYDRATE: A COMPARISON OF POWDER DIFFRACTION WITH SINGLE-CRYSTAL ANALYSESM. Louer, D. Louer, E. Betourne, and M. Touboul…INTRODUCTION The determination ab initio of crystal structures from powder diffraction data has been one of the major advance of modern powder crystallographyl. It is a consequence of the developments occurred in instrument resolution, powder pa…
TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF RESIDUAL STRESS IN TIN FILMS ON 316 STAINLESS STEELH.W. King, J. D. Brown, T. Caughlin and D.R. Nagy…Using specially designed nickel clips, the coated strip was heated by the passage of a resistive current, in conjunction with a surround heater, and the temperature was measured by a Pt/Pt-lO%Rh thermocouple welded to the under surface of the st…
TEMPERATURE DISCREPANCIES IN HIGH TEMPERATURE DIFFRACTOMETRYH.W. King, E.A. Payzant and T. Caughlin…However, the temperature of a powder sample on the heater, as indicated by the two-colour pyrometer, is significantly lower than that indicated by the thermocouple. The discrepancy between the two sets of temperature readings depends on the natu…
TEST DATA FOR THE CALCULATION OF POWDER PATTERNS FOR INTERMETALLIC PHASESL. D. Calvert, (deceased); P. L. Wallace, T. C. Huang, J. A. Kaduk, J. N. Dann, M. H. Mueller, (deceased); and A. C. Roberts…Box 3011, Naperville, IL 60566-7011, USA; (5) OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc., Hawes Street, Towanda, PA 18848-0504, USA; (6) Deceased; and (7) Geological Survey of Canada, 762-601 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada KlA-0E8. Abstract Powder diffraction p…
THE DETERMINATION OF TOXIC ELEMENTS IN HAZARDOUS LIQUID WASTE USING HIGH RESOLUTION EDXRF SPECTROMETRYAndrew T. Ellis, Philip A. Russell and Ray James…The typical requirement of the industry sector is rapid screening to support decisions on the most appropriate treatment of the waste. This paper reports the use of high resolution EDXRF spectrometry for the analysis of halides and toxic heavy e…
THE EFFECT OF GELATIN ON SILVER HALIDE STRAIN IN PHOTOGRAPHIC FILMST. N. Blanton, T. R. Watkins and M. A. Howey…Compression of the silver halide perpendicular to the film plane due to gelatin shrinkage is observed to occur as the coated film is exposed to low relative humidity (RH) environments. At 0% RH, the silver halide in the gelatin and gelatin plus …
THE EFFECT OF THE GROWTH TEMPERATURE ON THE STRUCTURE OF CO-CR-CO TRILAYERST. P. A. Hase, I. Pape, B. K. Tanner, S. M. Thompson, S. M. Jordan and J.-J. Freijo…Instituto de Magnetism0 Aplicado, Universidad Computense, Madrid, Spain Abstract The effect of layer deposition temperature on the structure of a series of nominally Si:Co(200A)-Cr(lOA)-Co(212A) trilayers, grown by UHV evaporation has been inves…
THE MONOLITHIC CAPILLARY X-RAY LENS, ITS BASIC PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONSY. Yan…In recent years a new prototype of the optic called a monolithic X-ray lens was developed. Differing from earlier assembled one, the monolithic lens is a single piece of optic composed of large number capillaries cohered together. In the past th…
USE OF CALVERT’S TEST DATA FOR THE EVALUATION OF POWDER PATTERN CALCULATION PROGRAMSJ. N. Dann, A. C. Roberts, P. L. Wallace and M. H. Mueller, (deceased)…Calvert et.al., in this volume). The programs used are not identified because they were not the latest versions. The element, magnesium, was used as test data in 13 different settings, all of which were tested. All gave satisfactory results whic…
X-RAY METHODS FOR MONITORING MACHINERY CONDITIONR.R. Whitlock…It has been common practice for several decades”’ to analyze s in order to identity the wear metals present, quantify them in terms of machine wear, and to use that information to perform maintenance based on the condition of the machine rather …
X-RAY ANALYSIS OF DEPTH DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE RESIDUAL STRESSES AND STRESS-FREE LATTICE PARAMETER IN PVD GRADIENT COATINGS OF TI(C,N) ON CEMENTED CARBIDEAndreas Kampfe, Paul K. Predecki and Bernd Eigenmann…Engineering, 2390 S. York St., Denver, CO 802 10, USA ABSTRACT Magnetron sputtered PVD coatings with a compositional gradient varying linearly in the system Ti(C,N) were examined. The coatings were directly sputtered from TiC and TiN targets at …
X-RAY ANALYSIS OF MAGNETIC MULTILAYERSV. Valvoda and M. Chládek…The results explain from the microscopic point of view distinctions found in their magnetic behavior. The XRD methods used are based on the distorted-wave Born approximation theory in the region close to the specular reflection and on the superl…
X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDY OF HIGH TC SUPERCONDUCTORS AND RELATED PHASES AT HIGH PRESSURESW. Wong-Ng, E. Gonzales, G.J. Piermarini, Ch. Wolters, J. Schwartz and M.R. Gallas…R. Gallas Instituto de Fisica Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Port0 Alegre, RS Brasil ABSTRACT The compressive behaviors of several high T, and related phases in the Ba-R-Cu-0 system (where R is yttrium and lanthanides) and in the Ba-H…
X-RAY EMISSION STUDIES OF CERAMIC THIN FILMS OBTAINED BY LOW PRESSURE MAGNETRON SPUTTERINGM. Charbonnier, J. Baborowski and M. Romand…Among ods, Low-Ener~ Electron Induced X-ray Spectrometry (LEELXS) was used to point out the eom~sition and stoi~hiome~ variations in the films and the possible concentration adlenks when the de that over-stoic a p” sition experimental conditions…
X-RAY IMAGING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE AND AMORPHOUS MATERIALST. Wroblewski…It makes use of a microchannelplate as a collimator in front of a position sensitive detector (CCD- camera). Experiments may be performed either in transmission or in reflection geometry. In the first case a ‘flat’ parallel beam illuminates a sl…
X-RAY STRESS MEASUREMENT OF NI3AL INTERMETALLIC COMPOUND USING IMAGING PLATETokimasa GOTO, Toshihiko SASAKP, Hiroyuki TABATA, Yukio HIROSE…The investigation of the grain boundary brittleness of polycrystalline N&Al is one of these studies. To prevent intergranular fi-acture, a unidirectional solidification process or a floating zone method[l] is applied. However, an application of …
X-RAY STUDY OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN THIN CHROMIUM METALLIZATIONS ON GLASS SUBSTRATESL. Suominen, C. Zhou, M. A. Korhonen and C.-Y. Li…Because of the nature of deposition process and differences in thermal expansion coefficients, very large residual stresses can arise which may lead to debonding of the Cr film. In this paper, effects of deposition type, glass type, thermal anne…
XRD AND TEM CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTOR SOLID SOLUTIONS: SN(S,SE) AND (PB,CD)SB.R. Jarabek, D.G. Grier, D.L. Simonson, D.J. Seidler, P. Boudjouk, G.J. McCarthy and L.P. Keller…Oakbrook Pkwy., Suite 200 Norcross, GA 30093 Abstract X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is an essential component of research into use of organometallic precursors as a route to low temperature (<500 “C) synthesis of bulk compound semiconductors. T…
XRD LINE PROFILE ANALYSIS OF HTC SUPERCONDUCTING THIN FILMSP. Scardi, A. Migliori, L. Correra, F.C. Matacotta and V.A. Dediu…Considering the particular microstructure of these films, which were all highly [OOl] oriented without twins in the growth plane, the domain size given by LPA could be regarded as a simple parameter to describe the degree of order along the grow…
XRF ANALYSIS – THEORY, EXPERIMENT AND REGRESSIONA. J. Klimasara…This paper will show that the key to the problem is the basic equation applied. If both the theoretical and experimental basic equations are the same then experimental alphas will have the same physical meaning. Actually, experimental alphas bas…